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ch 2

positive sanction

A Girl Scout works hard on a difficult project, and when she has completed her work, she is given a badge that she can wear on her uniform.
This is an example of a _______________.

negative sanction

A worker is frequently late, takes extended "coffee breaks," and makes numerous mistakes while working on important tasks. As a result of poor performance, the worker is fired. This is an example of a _______________.

positive, formal sanction

Salary bonus, testimonial dinner, medal, & a diploma are all examles of a _______________.

being well-off financially

In the textbook discussion of surveys of first-year college students over the last 13 years, which value has shown the strongest gain in popularity?

dominant ideology

____________________ - describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.


Which sociological perspective believes that the most powerful groups and institutions control wealth, property, and the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media?


___________________ - a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of the larger society.


What sociological concept describes professional gamblers, Armenian Americans, teenagers, and nudists?


An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture.
Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medical language?


The use of terms g-man, honey boat, and airmail by New York City sanitation workers is an example of a(n) _____________.


___________ examples are armed militia groups, terrorists, and hippies.

culture shock

_______________ - feeling disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture.

Sumner (William Graham Sumner)

The concept of "ethnocentrism" was originally formulated by _______________________.


_______________ - the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to all others.

cultural relativism

A sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of Asian peoples in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part.

This is an example of _______________.


The relative importance of cultural and biological factors in the socialization process is referred to as the debate over __________ versus nurture

both variables

What position would most social scientists take in the nature versus nurture debate?

social development

Social scientists now recognize that it is not enough to care for an infant's physical needs.
Parents must also concern themselves with children's __________________.


_______________ - the systematic study of the effect of biology on human social behavior.

the self

___________ - defined by sociologists as the distinct identity that sets one apart from others.

looking-glass self

_________________ - phrase used by Cooley to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with other people.

negative self identity

According to Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self, development of one's self-identity due to misperceptions how how others see us may lead to: _________________


According to George Herbert Mead, the _____________ stage occurs when they're young children.


__________________ - gestures, objects, and language that form the basis of human communication.


A child begins to "become" a doctor, a parent, a superhero, or a ship captain during the ____________ stage.

Mead (George Herbert Mead)

Which sociologist suggested that during the second stage of development, children become capable of assuming the perspective of another & are thereby able to respond from imagined viewpoint?

role taking

_______________ - the process of mentally assuming the perspective of another, thereby enabling one to respond from that imagined viewpoint.

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