A group of people who share a lifestyle and can identify with each other because of a shared allegiance to an activity or a product.
Tribal Marketing Strategy
Links their products to, say, a group of shredders.
Membership Reference Group
Consists of people we actually know/
Aspirational Reference Group
We don't know them but we admire them.
As physical distance between people decreases and opportunities for interaction increase, they are more likely to form relationships.
We come to like persons or things if we see them more often.
Refers to the degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and how much each values his or her membership in this group.
People we do not want to associate with.
A process whereby individual identities become submerged within a group.
Home Shopping Party
Capitalizes on group pressures to boost sales.
A company representative makes a sales presentation to a group of people who gather at the home of a friend or acquaintance.
A change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.
Informal rules that govern behavior.
Different cultures encourage conformity to a greater or lesser degree.
Fear of Deviance
The individual may have reason to believe that the group will apply sanctions to punish nonconforming behaviors.
The more people are dedicated to a group and value their membership in it, the greater their motivation to conform to the group's wishes.
Principle of Least Interest
The person who is least committed to staying in a relationship has the most power because that part doesn't care as much if the other person rejects him.
Group Unanimity, Size, and Expertise
As groups gain in power, compliance increases.
Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence
Refers to an individual's need to have others think highly of him or her.
The person who brings up the idea or identifies a need.
The person who conducts the information search and controls the flow of information available to the group.
The person who tries to sway the outcome of the decision.
The person who actually makes the purchase.
The person who actually consumes the product or service.
Are people who purchase goods and services on behalf of companies for the companies' use in manufacturing, distribution, or resale.
Business-to-business (B2B) Marketing
Who must satisfy the needs of organizations such as corporations, government agencies, hospitals, and retailers.
Buyclass Theory of Purchasing
Divides organizational buying decisions into three types that range from the least to the most complex.
Three decision making dimensions:
1. The level of information he or she must gather prior to the decision. 2. The seriousness with which he or she must consider all possible alternatives. 3. The degree to which he or she is familiar with the purchase
An habitual decision.
Involves limited decision-making.
Involves extensive problem-solving.
One of the hottest trends in organizational decision-making techniques.
Consists of three generations who live together.
A mother, a father, and one or more children,
Any occupied housing unit.
Children who are more likely to live at home after graduating college rather than taking their own places.
Middle aged people who must support both generation above them and the one below them.
The number of births per year per 1,000 women of childbearing age.
Family Life Cycle (FLC)
Combines trends in income and family composition with the changes these demands place on this income.
Consensual Purchase Decision
Members agree on the desired purchase.
Acommodative Purchase Decision
Group members different preferences or priorities and can't agree on a purchase that satisfies everyone's needs.
A person's level of investment in the group.
Product Involvement and Utility
The degree to which a person will use the product to satisfy a need.
For procurement, maintenance, payment, and so on.
The degree to which one family member exerts influence over the others.
Defines the household both to members and to insiders.
These are structures that invest in products and services to help the family reason collective identity goals, recognizing that these pursuits may compete with rather than complement individual interests.
Overprotective mothers who "hover" around their kids and insert themselves into virtually all aspects of their lives.
When one family member chooses a product.
Involves both partners.
Where women will dominate emerging markets.
Financial Officer (FFO)
The individual who keeps track of the family's bills and decides how to spend any surplus funds.
A frenzied, guilt-ridden compromise between conflicting cultural ideals of motherhood and professionalism.
Couples who believe in traditional sex-role stereotypes tend to make individual decisions for sex-typed products.
The spouse who contributes more resources to the family has the greater influences.
Couples who have experience as a decision-making unit makes individual decisions more frequently.
Middle-class families make more joint decisions than do either higher- or lower- class families.
They maintain ties among family members, both immediate and extended.
Calls for the husband and wife to take common view and to act as joint decision makers.