121 terms

Chapter 9: Group and Situational Effects on Consumer Behavior

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Consumption Situation
Includes a buyer, a seller, and a product or service---but also many other factors, such as the reason we want to make a purchase and how the physical environment makes us feel.
Situational Self-Image
The role she plays at any one time.
Antecedent States
Situational factors, usage contexts, time pressure, mood, and shopping orientation.
Purchase Environment
The shopping experience, point-of-purchase stimuli, and sale interactions.
Postpurchase Processes
Consumer satisfaction, product disposal, and alternative markets.
Open Rates
The percentage of people who open an email message from a marketer.
Time-style
Prioritize time
Fastest Countries
1. Switzerland
2. Ireland
3. Germany
4. Japan
5. Italy
Slowest Countries
31. Mexico
30. Indonesia
29. Brazil
28. El Salvador
27. Syria
Time Poverty
We don't have enough time.
Psychological Time
To be in a consuming mood at certain times when we are at others.
Four Dimensions of Time
1. Social Dimension
2. Temporal Orientation Dimension
3. Planning Orientation Dimension
4. Polychronic Orientation Dimension
Social Dimension
Refers to individuals' categorization of time as either "time for me" or "time with/for others".
Temporal Orientation Dimension
Depicts the relative significance individuals attach to past, present, or future.
Planning Orientation Dimension
Alludes to different time management styles varying on a continuum from analytic to spontaneous.
Polychronic Orientation Dimension
Distinguishes between people who prefer to do one thing at a time form those who have multitasking timestyles.
Five Metaphors that Capture Participants' Perspective on Time
1. Time is a pressure cooker
2. Time is a map
3. Time is a mirror
4. Time is a river
5. Time is a feast
Queuing Theory
The mathematical study of waiting lines.
Pleasure and Arousal
Determine whether we will react positively or negatively to a consumption environment.
Shopping Orientation
General attitudes about shopping.
Social Experience
The shopping center or department store replaces the traditional town square or country fair as a community gathering place. 359
Sharing of Common Interests
Some frequently offer specialized goods that allow people with shared interests to communicate.
Interpersonal Attraction
Shopping centers are a natural place to congregate.
Instant Status
As every salesperson knows, some people savor the experience of being waited on, even through they may not necessarily buy anything.
The Thrill of the Hunt
Some people pride themselves on their knowledge of the marketplace.
Showrooming
The shopper visits a tore like Best Buy to explore options or big-ticket items like TVs or appliances and then he or she finds a cheaper price for the specific model online.
Pretailer
Provides exclusive styles by prodding manufacturers to produce runway pieces they wouldn't otherwise make because store buyers weren't sure anyone would pay the money for them.
Retail Theming
The quest to entertain means that many stores go all out to create imaginative environments that transport shoppers to fantasy worlds or provide other kinds of stimulation.
Landscape Themes
Rely on associations with images of nature, Earth, animals, and the physical body.
Ex. Bass Pro Shop
Marketscape Themes
Build on associations with man-made places.
Ex. The Venetian hotel in Las Vegas
Cyberspace Themes
Build on images of information and communication technology.
Ex. Ebay
Mindscape Themes
Draw on abstract ideas and concepts, introspection and fantasy, and often possess spiritual overtones.
Ex. Native American Spa
Store Image
Location, merchandise suitability, and the knowledge and congeniality of the sales staff.
Atmospherics
The "conscious designing of space and its various dimensions to evoke certain effects in buyers.
Activity Stores
Let consumers participate in the production of the products of services they buy there.
ex. Build a Bear Workshop
Mental Budgets
Consumers typically decide beforehand on an amount they plan to spend.
In-Store Slack
Consumers have a additional amount in mind they are willing to send on unplanned purchases.
Mobile Shopping Apps
Provide imaginative new ways for retailers to guide shoppers through the experience, as they do everything for you.
Unplanned Buying
When a consumer is unfamiliar with a store's layout or perhaps under some time pressure.
Impulse Buying
When a consumer experiences a sudden urge that they simply can't resist.
Point-of-Purchase Stimuli
An elaborate product display or demonstration, a coupon-dispensing machine, or an employee who gives out free samples of a new cookie in the grocery aisle.
Dyadic Encounter
Two-person groups
Nonassertive People
Believe it's not social acceptable to complain and sales situations may intimidate them.
Assertive People
More likely to stand up for themselves in a firm but nonthreatening way.
Aggressive People
May resort to rudeness or threats if they don't get their way.
Social Power
Describes the capacity to alter the actions of others.
Referent Power
If a person admires the qualities of a person or a group, he tries to copy the referent's behaviors.
Information Power
A person possess this power simply because she knows something others would like to know.
Legitimate Power
Sometimes we grant power by virtue of social agreements, such as the authority we give to police officers, soldiers, and yes, even professors.
Expert Power
When people use expertise icons to endorse its products.
Reward Power
A person or group with the means to provide positive reinforcement.
Coercive Power
When we influence someone because of social or physical intimidation.
Reference Group
An actual or imaginary individual or group that significantly influences an individual's evaluations, aspirations, or behavior.
Information Influence
The individual seeks information about various brands from an association of professionals or independent group of experts.
Utilitarian Influencey
So that he or she satisfies the expectations of fellow work associates, the individual's decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by their preferences.
Value-Expressive Influence
The individual feels that the purchase or use of a particular brand will enhance the image others have of him or her.
Name Letter Effect
Finds that, all things equal, we like others who share our names or even initials better than those who don't.
Normative Influence
The reference group helps to se and enforce fundamental standards of conduct.
Comparative Influence
It affects members' decisions about specific motorcycle purchases.
Brand Community
A group of consumers who share a set of social relationships based on usage of or interest in a product.
Brandfests
These events helps owners to "bond" with fellow enthusiasts and strengthen their identification with the product as well as with others they meet who share their passion.
Collective Value Creation
1. Social Networking: welcoming, empathizing, governing
2. Community Engagement: documenting, badging, milestoning, staking
3. Brand Use: customizing, grooming, commoditizing
4. Impressive Management: evangelizing, justifying
Consumer Tribe
A group of people who share a lifestyle and can identify with each other because of a shared allegiance to an activity or a product.
Tribal Marketing Strategy
Links their products to, say, a group of shredders.
Membership Reference Group
Consists of people we actually know/
Aspirational Reference Group
We don't know them but we admire them.
Propinquity
As physical distance between people decreases and opportunities for interaction increase, they are more likely to form relationships.
Mere Exposure
We come to like persons or things if we see them more often.
Group Cohesiveness
Refers to the degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and how much each values his or her membership in this group.
Avoidance Groups
People we do not want to associate with.
Deindividuation
A process whereby individual identities become submerged within a group.
Home Shopping Party
Capitalizes on group pressures to boost sales.
Direct Selling
A company representative makes a sales presentation to a group of people who gather at the home of a friend or acquaintance.
Conformity
A change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.
Norms
Informal rules that govern behavior.
Cultural Pressures
Different cultures encourage conformity to a greater or lesser degree.
Fear of Deviance
The individual may have reason to believe that the group will apply sanctions to punish nonconforming behaviors.
Commitment
The more people are dedicated to a group and value their membership in it, the greater their motivation to conform to the group's wishes.
Principle of Least Interest
The person who is least committed to staying in a relationship has the most power because that part doesn't care as much if the other person rejects him.
Group Unanimity, Size, and Expertise
As groups gain in power, compliance increases.
Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence
Refers to an individual's need to have others think highly of him or her.
Initiator
The person who brings up the idea or identifies a need.
Gatekeeper
The person who conducts the information search and controls the flow of information available to the group.
Influencer
The person who tries to sway the outcome of the decision.
Buyer
The person who actually makes the purchase.
User
The person who actually consumes the product or service.
Organizational Buyers
Are people who purchase goods and services on behalf of companies for the companies' use in manufacturing, distribution, or resale.
Business-to-business (B2B) Marketing
Who must satisfy the needs of organizations such as corporations, government agencies, hospitals, and retailers.
Buyclass Theory of Purchasing
Divides organizational buying decisions into three types that range from the least to the most complex.
Three decision making dimensions:
1. The level of information he or she must gather prior to the decision.
2. The seriousness with which he or she must consider all possible alternatives.
3. The degree to which he or she is familiar with the purchase
Straight Rebuy
An habitual decision.
Modified Rebuy
Involves limited decision-making.
New Task
Involves extensive problem-solving.
Prediction Market
One of the hottest trends in organizational decision-making techniques.
Extended Family
Consists of three generations who live together.
Nuclear Family
A mother, a father, and one or more children,
Household
Any occupied housing unit.
Boomerang kids
Children who are more likely to live at home after graduating college rather than taking their own places.
Sandwich Generation
Middle aged people who must support both generation above them and the one below them.
Fertility Rate
The number of births per year per 1,000 women of childbearing age.
Family Life Cycle (FLC)
Combines trends in income and family composition with the changes these demands place on this income.
Consensual Purchase Decision
Members agree on the desired purchase.
Acommodative Purchase Decision
Group members different preferences or priorities and can't agree on a purchase that satisfies everyone's needs.
Interpersonal Need
A person's level of investment in the group.
Product Involvement and Utility
The degree to which a person will use the product to satisfy a need.
Responsibility
For procurement, maintenance, payment, and so on.
Power
The degree to which one family member exerts influence over the others.
Family Identity
Defines the household both to members and to insiders.
Customer Network
These are structures that invest in products and services to help the family reason collective identity goals, recognizing that these pursuits may compete with rather than complement individual interests.
Helicopter Moms
Overprotective mothers who "hover" around their kids and insert themselves into virtually all aspects of their lives.
Autonomic Decision
When one family member chooses a product.
Syncretic Decisions
Involves both partners.
Sheconomy
Where women will dominate emerging markets.
Financial Officer (FFO)
The individual who keeps track of the family's bills and decides how to spend any surplus funds.
Juggling Lifestyle
A frenzied, guilt-ridden compromise between conflicting cultural ideals of motherhood and professionalism.
Sex-Role Stereotypes
Couples who believe in traditional sex-role stereotypes tend to make individual decisions for sex-typed products.
Spousal Resource
The spouse who contributes more resources to the family has the greater influences.
Experience
Couples who have experience as a decision-making unit makes individual decisions more frequently.
Socioeconomic Status
Middle-class families make more joint decisions than do either higher- or lower- class families.
Kin-Network System
They maintain ties among family members, both immediate and extended.
Synoptic Ideal
Calls for the husband and wife to take common view and to act as joint decision makers.
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