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bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy:

removal of both fallopian tubes and ovaries

buccofacial apraxia:

inability to coordinate and carry out facial and lip movements on command, such as whistling or winking

carotid bruits:

harsh or musical abnormal sounds in the carotid artery produced by turbulent blood flow


abrupt; blunt; brief; gruff


the progressive loss or cognitive and intellectual functions without impairment of perception or consciousness


trade name prescription medicine used to treat symptoms of overactive bladder


a gradual movement, as from an original position dictated in neurologic exam


an emotional state characterized by anxiety, depression, or unease

dysthymic personality disorder:

a chronic disturbance of mood characterized by mild depression or loss of interest in usual activities


involuntary contractions, or twitching, of groups of muscle fibers

frontal release signs:

the primitive reflexes normally present in infants that appear in adults with frontal lobe lesions; frontal release signs are grasp, snout root, and suck

Geriatric Depression Scale:

a 30-item self-report assessment designed specifically to identify depression in the elderly

homicidal ideations:

thoughts about killing another person


removal of the uterus


a generic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent


inclined to act on impulse rather than thought

limb gestural apraxia:

inability to move a limb in a specific way on command, such as a finger, even though the person understands what must be done and has moved the limb in the past

limb manipulation apraxia:

inability to use an object such as to open a door with a key or flip a coin

major depressive disorder:

condition characterized by one or more major depressive episodes not due to a medical condition, medication, abused substance, or psychosis

Mattis Dementia Rating Scale:

test that identifies individuals at risk for Alzheimer disease; also used to study efficacy of drugs given for dementia in Parkinson disease


condition characterized by neck stiffness, headache, and other symptoms of meningeal irritation but without meningitis


abbreviation for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--psychological test most commonly used by health professionals to assess and diagnose mental illness


abbreviation for Mini-Mental Status Examination - screening tool to assess overall brain function and often used to evaluate patients with possible Alzheimer disease or other related dementia


x-ray contrast medium for use in computerized tomography (CT), brand name


arthritis characterized by erosion of the articular cartilage

paraphasic errors:

substitution of an incorrect sound (e.g., tree for free) or related word (e.g., chair for bed)


passive-aggressive personality disorder is a chronic condition in which the person seems to passively comply with the desires and needs of others but actually passively resists them, in the process becoming increasingly hostile and angry


a personality characterized by helplessness, indecisiveness, and a tendency to cling to and seek support from others


conception and planning of a motor act in response to an environmental demand


test performed for balance; the patient stands with feet together with eyes closed; if the patient cannot maintain the position, this may indicate lesions in the brain or nervous system

suicidal ideations:

thoughts of killing oneself


implies a silent ill humor and refusal to be sociable

tandem walking:

on stepping forward, placing the heel of the foot in front against the toe of the foot in back


generic name for an antibiotic


abbreviation for temporomandibular joint; the joint of the jaw


removal of the entire tonsil

Trail Making Test Parts A and B:

test given to identify brain function impairment. The test consists of two parts, A and B, and is a test of speed. Part A consists of encircled numbers from 1 to 25 randomly spread across a sheet of paper. The object of the test is for the subject to connect the numbers in order, beginning with 1 and ending with 25, in as little time as possible. Part B is more complex than A because it requires the subject to connect numbers and letters in an alternating pattern in as little time as possible

visual fields:

the entire scope of vision of each eye

Wechsler Logical Memory:

test given to measure immediate and delayed narrative memory; comprised of 2 short prose stories. The first is composed of 24 units or ideas, and the second is composed of 22 units or ideas. One point is awarded for each idea that is recalled verbatim, and a half-point is awarded for each time the participant recalls the gist of an idea utilizing a difference word or phrase.

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