1882-1945. Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, and pianist. Earned a living primarily as a teacher and pianist. Mature works influenced by his studies of Hungarian, Slovak, and Romanian peasant music. Style characterized by rhythmic vigor, irregular rhythms, modal melodies and harmonies. Along with Kódaly and Dohnányi, was a founding figure of 20th century Hungarian musical culture. Works: Concerto for Orchestra, Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, Mikrokosmos, opera (Bluebeard's Castle), pantomime (The Miraculous Mandarin), 3 piano concertos, 2 violin concertos, viola concerto, assorted orchestral and piano works. 1900-1990. American composer, pianist, and conductor. Sought distinctively American style, incorporating elements of jazz, blues, ragtime, and folk songs into his works. Used Mexican dance rhythms and traditional melodies. Ballets demonstrate interest in cowboy themes and the southwest. Musical language mostly tonal, orchestration transparent. Experimented with serial techniques in some early works (Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson, 1950). Works: opera (The Tender Land), ballets (Rodeo, Appalachian Spring), piano works, film scores, assorted orchestral works. 1897-1965. American composer, writer, performer, publisher, and teacher. Experimented with tone clusters on the piano, performed by the hand, fist, or forearm. First employed in The Tides of Manuanaun. Was part of a group of west coast composers (that included John Cage, whom he taught) that sought new timbres, influenced by music of diverse cultures. Developed idea of prepared piano, first carried out by Cage. Works: orchestral and band, keyboard, arrangements of folk songs. 1862-1918. French composer. Early modernist composer whose eclectic influences reflected the many directions that 20th century composers would later explore. Influenced by Javanese gamelan ensembles, medieval chant, gypsy songs, Russian orchestral works, Wagner, symbolist artists and writers. Used "artificial" scales (octatonic, whole tone, pentatonic) to blur tonality and prevent resolution. Showed disregard for conventional forms, focusing instead on atmosphere. Characteristic sound is muted, constructed from motives rather than melodies, and consisting of indefinite outlines and undulating patterns. Works: ballets (Prélude l'aprs-midi d'un faun, Jeux), orchestral works (La Mer), piano works (two books of preludes), chamber music, including a string quartet, opera (Pélleas et Mélisande). 1895-1963. German composer, teacher, theorist, violist, and conductor. While early works displayed expressionist tendencies, mature style was neo-classical, rooted in the forms and techniques of the 17th and 18th centuries. Associated with Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) and Gebrauchmusik, both movements that sought political currency and practical applications for the arts. Believed that high quality music should be written for amateurs as well as professionals. Also maintained that composers should be performing musicians with practical experience. Works: operas (Mathis der Maler), orchestral works, chamber music, keyboard (Ludus tonalis), pedagogical works, vocal, choral, mechanical and electro-acoustic music. 1874-1954. American composer. Style characterized by integration of American and European musical traditions. Anticipated many developments in the later 20th century, including polyrhythms, experimental forms, and tone clusters. Often quoted from diverse sources, including classical, folk, gospel hymns, dance tunes, and marches. Influenced by New England transcendentalism of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Works: orchestral (The Unanswered Question), band, chamber music, songs, marches. 1882-1967. Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, and educator. With Bartók, helped create a new Hungarian art music based on folk sources. Published several volumes of folk music studies and developed educational method that uses solmization, rhythmic syllables, and stick notation. Works: Singspiel, incidental music, choral, orchestral, chamber music, songs. 1908-1992. French composer, organist, and teacher. Eclectic influences included harmonic language of Debussy and Ravel, Hindu and Greek rhythms, birdsong, Catholic mysticism, plainchant, and Russian music. Discussed compositional techniques later borrowed by students like Boulez in Technique de mon langage musical. Described approaches to rhythm, including additive rhythms and non-retrogradable rhythms (rhythmic palidromes). Coined the phrase "modes of limited transposition" to describe sets that cannot be transposed by half step more than 11 times before the original set appears. Works: opera (St. Francis of Assisi), chamber music, piano and organ works, orchestral, electronic. 1875-1937. French composer. Student of Gabriel Fauré whose five failed attempts to win the Prix de Rome created a scandal (the first "Affaire Ravel"). Eclectic style characterized by exoticism, dance rhythms, surface ornament, formal clarity, parody, and a lifelong fascination with the grotesque. Harmonic language featured octatonicism, modes (Dorian and Phyrgian), jazz and blues inflections, and unresolved dissonances - rarely whole tones. An exceptional orchestrator, Ravel turned his attention to orchestrating his own piano works after 1917. Developed new style of piano writing based on virtuosity of Liszt in Jeux d'eau (1901). Often associated with impressionism, though the two most prominent characteristics of impressionism - fluid, suspended approach to time, and vague, blurry textures constructed from motives - are not generally found in Ravel's music. Works: 2 operas, ballets (Daphnis et Chloé, La Valse), 2 piano concertos, keyboard works, songs, chamber music (string quartet, trio), choral. 1866-1925. French composer. Despite limited compositional technique, his ideas anticipated many later 20th century developments, including minimalism and organized total chromaticism. Style characterized by simplicity, wit, parody, and popular influences, including those from the cabarets and dance halls where he performed as a pianist. Was a major influence on John Cage and, like Cage, had a shrewd awareness of developments in other fields of contemporary art. Works: operettas, ballets (Parade), orchestral, cabaret songs, piano. 1874-1951. Austrian composer. Earliest works featured chromatic, post-romantic style influenced by Wagner and Mahler (Verklärte Nacht). Sought to emancipate dissonant intervals from the tonal system, noting in his 1911 harmony book that there were no consonant or dissonant tones - some tones were just more consonant than others. Started writing expressionist, freely atonal works that were either very short (Op. 11 piano pieces) or organized through text (Erwartung). Developed twelve tone technique, a means of organizing pitch relationships, around 1924. Technique was among the most important developments of the 20th century; its reverberations extended from his immediate circle (Berg and Webern) to become the dominant method of composition in the second of the 20th century. Despite highly systematized approach to composition, remained dedicated to romantic and expressionist themes throughout his life. Works: operas, orchestral, chamber, keyboard, choral (Survivor from Warsaw). 1882-1971. Russian composer. Student of Rimsky-Korsakov. Eclectic composer whose many stylistic ventures reflected multifarious ventures of modernism Early works reflect nationalist and folk impulses, colorful orchestration, densely layered textures, modal/tonal shifts, explosive rhythms, repetition, block progression. After World War I, neo-classical style emerged, but "Russian" characteristics of repetition, block progression, and irregular rhythms remained throughout his career. Neo-classical style severe, economical, less dissonant. Drew from forms and styles of the past (baroque, classical, romantic, chant, Renaissance polyphony), often using them in parodies or caricatures. Third period featured highly personal interpretation of serial technique, often using five and six note rows rather than twelve. Drew more inspiration from distant past - medieval and Renaissance. Works: ballets (Le Sacre du printemps, Orpheus, Agon), operas (Mavra, The Rake's Progress), chamber music, piano. 1883-1945. Austrian composer and conductor. With Schoenberg and Berg, one of the major exponents of 12-tone technique, though he used serialism more rigorously than them. Innovative organization of rhythm and dynamics, along with sparse, pointillistic textures, were important influences on total serialists (Stockhausen, Boulez, and the 1950's Darmstadt school). Wrote only 31 works, with Op. 1-16 consisting of short atonal pieces and Op. 17-31 serial works. Had a Ph.D. in musicology, and dissertation on Isaac's Choralis Constantinus demonstrated interest in Renaissance polyphony. Many works featured strict canonic and contrapuntal practices. Also used Klangfarbenmelodie, varying timbres and colors to create a sound akin to melodic line. Works: orchestral, choral, solo vocal, piano, chamber. No opera.