29 terms

Mcdougal Littel World History Chapter 5 vocab

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Mycenaeans
Indo European migrants; first Greek-speaking people; invaded Minoans; dominated Greek world 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.; sea traders; lived in separate city-states; invovled in Trojan War against Troy
Trojan War
A war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia. First thought to be a fictional story, but evidence led to the belief that it was based off of real cities, people, and events
Dorians
A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey, and was the greatest story teller of his time (circa 850 BC)
epics
narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds
myths
Traditional stories about the deeds of gods, goddesses, & heroes that explained their world.
polis
Greek city-state
acropolis
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs and city government
monarchy
government under a single ruler
aristocracy
A government in which power is in the hands of a small group of noble, landowning families.
oligarchy
a system of government in which a small group holds power
tyrants
A powerful individual who gained control over the government by appealing to the common people for support
democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
helots
Messenian slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.
phalanx
formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
direct democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
classical art
the art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized
tragedy
A serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal.
comedy
a drama which contained serious scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta. Ended with the complete annihilation of the Athenian navy and army. Resulted in Athenian loss of its empire, wealth, and power.
philosophers
"Lovers of wisdom", a thinker who uses logic and reason. Based their philosophy on 2 assumptions.
1.The universe is put together in an orderly way, and subject to absolute and unchanging laws
2.People can understand these laws through logic and reason
Socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method. Was forced to drink poison for "corrupting the youth of Athens"
Plato
one of Socrates' students; was considered by many to be the GREATEST philosopher of western civilization. Explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups. Farmers and artisans, Warriors, and a Ruling Class
Aristotle
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. Questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge
Macedonia
an ancient kingdon ruled by Alexander the Great that conquered Greece and the Persian empire in the 300s BC
Philip II
Macedonian King,he was a brillliant military leader who defeated the Greeks. Alexander the Great was his son.
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Darius III
Persian king who lost his empire to Alexander the Great