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201 terms

nutrition 202

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Which of the following is the best definition of essential nutrient?
nutrients a person must consume to maintain health
The three main functions of the nutrients include all of the following except:
speed up our metabolism
All of the following statements are true regarding components of a nutrition study that provides reliable information, EXCEPT:
Personal testimonials are appropriate type of data to collect
A slice of apple pie has the same nutrient density as eating a medium size apple.
FALSE
By chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in highest amounts in most foods?
Water
Which of the following is NOT one of the six classes of nutrients?
Fiber
Which of the following CANNOT add fat to the body?
Inorganic nutrients
What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?
45-65%
What is the AMDR for fat?
20-35%
Which of the following leading causes of death in the U.S. does NOT bear a relationship to diet?
Pneumonia and influenza
For most nutrients, it is difficult to exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) by consuming food.
True
My Pyramid was designed to put the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines into practice.
True
Ingredients on a food label are listed in descending order by weight.
True
Which of the following is the most nutrient dense food relative to calcium content?
nonfat milk
According to the Food Guide Pyramid, approximately what percentage of the day's food servings could be derived from plant foods?
75
Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with
diabetes
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content?
Whole-grain
General features of the legumes include all of the following EXCEPT
they are high in fat
A food label ingredient list reads: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt and cornstarch. What item would be found in the lowest amount in the food?
cornstarch
Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?
They can be made without and FDA approval
When you eat a taco, the tortilla, meat, cheese, lettuce, and tomato are broken apart, releasing the nutrients and other food components they contain. This process is called:
digestion
Which of the following best describes the normal pH of the stomach?
very acidic
Which is the function of bile?
emulsifies fats
Which of the following classes of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
vitamins
Which of the following is generally NOT digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions?
fiber
What is the name of the projections on the inner surface of hte small intestine?
villi
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms EXCEPT
transmigration
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?
lymphatic
Which of the following is most likely to result from insufficient intake of fiber?
constipation
What is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?
heart
Starch and dietary fiber are classified as
compec carbohydrates
What is the sweetest tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?
fructose
What is the primary storage form of the carbohydrate in the body?
glycogen
What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbohydrates?
small intestines
What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?
liver
What is the primary function of insulin?
lowers blood glucose levels
All of the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance EXCEPT
constipation
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
glucagon
Which of the following statements describes the glycemic effect of foods?
A measure of how fast and high the food causes the blood glucose to rise
In general, a diet that is modified by substituting complex carbohydrates for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in
fiber
This lipid is an important component of cell membranes, forming a lipid bilayer by orienting the water-soluble portion towards the water environment:
phospholipid
The majority of lipid digestion occurs here:
small intestine
Each gram of fat from the diet contains ______ calories:
9
All of the following foods contain cholesterol except:
potato chips cooked in partially hydrogenated corn oil
HDLS __________
return cholesterol from other lipoproteins and body cells to the liver.
In what form are most dietary lipids found?
triglycerides
Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?
monounsaturated
An oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
cis to trans
Which of the following is a feature of phospholipids?
soluble in both water and fat
Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
synthesized by the body
If you choose a high-fat, high-salt, fast-food lunch, your nutrient intake for the day cannot meet the recommendations for a healthy diet.
FALSE
Which of these foods has the lowest nutrient density?
orange soda
This graph indicates that _________
low-fat milk contains more calcium per calorie than ice cream
Which group consists only of nutrients that are classified as energy-yielding nutrients?
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
Which group consists only of nutrients that are considered micronutrients?
vitamins and minerals
Which nutrient class provides the most Calories per gram?
lipids
Based on this illustration, which nutrient class makes up the greatest proportion of body weight?
water
Which of these statements about essential nutrients is false?
If you do not get enough of them in your diet, your body will synthesize enough to meet its needs.
Why it is better to obtain your nutrients from foods than from dietary supplements?
Dietary supplements are more likely to contain toxic amounts of nutrients.
Foods provide phytochemicals and zoochemicals
Foods provide pleasurable tastes and aromas.
Which of these factors can limit the availability of food?
socioeconomic status
health status
living conditions
A diet that follows the principles of variety, balance, and moderation _________
can include all kinds of foods
Which of these sources would be most likely to exaggerate the beneficial effects of a dietary supplement?
a pamphlet published by the manufacturer
When the scientific method is used, a hypothesis is first proposed and then tested through experimentation. Which of the following hypotheses can be tested by means of experiments that use a quantifiable measure?
Eating an apple a day will lower blood cholesterol.
The information in this graph was collected in an epidemiological study. Which of the following statements is true?
A higher incidence of coronary heart disease is associated with a higher intake of saturated fat.
In a scientific experiment, a group that is identical to the experimental group in every way except that its members do not receive the treatment being tested is called _________
a control group
A glass of milk is more nutrient dense than a can of soda because:
it contains calcium
Foods are fortified to help eliminate nutrient deficiencies.
TRUE
It is better to meet your vitamin C needs with an orange than a dietary supplement because:
Dietary supplements do not offer all the benefits of an orange.
Taste is one of the factors that would determine the foods you eat at a family picnic.
TRUE
The following nutrients provide energy:
Protein, carbohydrates and lipids
Water is involved in maintenance and formation of the shape and structure of the body.
TRUE
Excess calories/energy is not a cause of malnutrition.
FALSE
Variety is important in a diet because:
No single food can provide all the nutrients needed.
You ate a 400-calorie cinnamon roll for a snack. Which of the following would be the best choice for lunch to help you maintain a nutritious diet for the day?
A salad with low fat dressing
Moderation
Requires you to watch your portion sizes
The difference between a hypothesis and a theory is
Experimentation is required to support a theory
Epidemiology
Looks for patterns in populations
Control groups
Allow for comparison to see if what was being tested had any effect
This diagram illustrates the steps of:
observation>hypothesis>experiment>theory
the scientific method
Information in advertisements
Is intended to sell a product
Nutrition recommendations benefit individual and public health because
They are used to both plan diets and evaluate what we are eating
The original purpose of the RDAs was to make recommendations on amounts of energy and on specific nutrients that were most likely to be deficient in people's diets.
TRUE
RDAs and AIs are used for:
Identifying the amount of nutrients most healthy people should consume
The ULs
Suggest the maximum intake level to avoid the risk of adverse health effects
Gender, age and activity level all affect your energy needs (EER).
TRUE
MyPyramid DOES NOT helps us follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans by:
Telling us how to prepare, handle and store food safely
Examples of discretionary calories are:
A donut
Serving sizes are standardized on food labels to allow consumers to compare products.
TRUE
The portion of the food label that would help you find foods that are low in saturated fat is
The total fat section of the label
The place you would find information about whether the product contained nuts would be
On the ingredient list
Structure/function claims on dietary supplement labels are never misleading.
FALSE
Use this label to determine which of the following statements about the amount of sodium and calcium in this product is true:
This product is high in sodium and high in calcium
Atoms, molecules and cells are not related to one another because they are all different types of units of matter.
FALSE
Which of the following is one of the ways that the endocrine system interacts with the digestive system?
Secretes hormones that regulate how much we eat
Absorption is the process that takes place before digestion in the digestive system.
FALSE
The liver is one of the organs of the digestive system.
TRUE
Enzymes signal the pancreas and gallbladder to secrete digestive substances into the small intestine
FALSE
Swallowing moves food through the GI tract.
FALSE
Villi contain which of the following:
Lacteal
All of the following help destroy antigens EXCEPT
allergens
People with heartburn should avoid all of the following EXCEPT
Banana
Food entering the stomach sends a signal to the brain to release______ which triggers the release of gastric juice.
gastrin
Whole grain products include
A, B, C
Which is true of enriched grains?
Some of the nutrients lost or diminished in processing are added back
Foods high in added refined sugar
contain empty calories
Glycogen is the storage form of sugar in plants.
FALSE
The bonds that link the sugar units in starch and fiber
are not the same because the bond in fiber are hard to break down
Beans tend to be high in soluble fiber.
TRUE
Which is NOT a step involved in starch digestion?
Salivary amylase breaks down starch in the stomach
Which is not a good food source of calcium for someone who is lactose intolerant?
Milk
Indigestible carbohydrates are good for health because
They inhibit the growth of undesirable bacteria
Fiber causes a greater glycemic response than refined carbohydrates.
FALSE
Blood glucose levels should be kept in the normal range to prevent the risk of Type I Diabetes.
FALSE
Blood glucose levels
Rise when glucagon is released
Health conditions that are common in people with uncontrolled diabetes include all the following
kidney failure, increased risk of heart disease, blindness
Fiber benefits colon health in these possible ways EXCEPT
by not changing the intestinal microflora
The American diet
contains 32 tsp of sugar on average
MyPyramid recommends these carbohydrate sources
whole grains, leafy vegetables and dried fruits
The food label does not provide information on added sugar.
FALSE
The fat in ice cream
Makes it tasty due to the rich taste
The following are invisible sources of fat in the diet EXCEPT for
Butter
Saturated fatty acids contain double bonds
FALSE
Most phospholipids in the body are found in
Cell membranes
Cholesterol is an essential dietary nutrient because it cannot be made in the body.
FALSE
Foods high in cholesterol include
Eggs
Bile
Acts as an emulsifier
LDL cholesterol
Transport cholesterol to cells
Adipose tissue
Cushions the internal organs
Eating fish regularly will do all of the following EXCEPT
Increases inflammation
After dietary fat has been absorbed, it is immediately stored in adipose tissue.
FALSE
Which of the following health problems is NOT caused by a deficiency of essential fatty acids?
Reduction in the absorption of water soluble vitamins
As macrophages fill with oxidized cholesterol, they become foam cells.
TRUE
Eating fat can increase the number of calories you consume because
Fat contains 9 calories per gram while carbs and protein are only 4 calories per gram
Fatty fish is healthier than fatty beef because it contains omega 3 fatty acids.
TRUE
Ingredient lists on packages are the best way to identify if a food is low in fat and cholesterol.
FALSE
As indicated in this diagram, inflammation that occurs in response to an injury to the artery wall precipitates the development of _________ which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
plaque
Fatty acid chains are broken down in the mitochondria to help generate ATP.
TRUE
ooking at the graph titled "What Scientists See", which of the following is correct:
Since the 1950's there has been a decline in saturated fat consumed from milk but there has also been a decline in calcium lessening the public health benefit.
The best definition of the purpose of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is
to recommend the amounts of energy, nutrients, and other food components that healthy people should consume in order to stay healthy, reduce the risk of chronic disease, and prevent deficiencies
Which of the following pairs correctly links the daily reference intake with its definition?
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are intakes that are sufficient to meet the nutrient needs of almost all healthy people in a specific gender and life-stage group.
Which of the following factors does not play a role in determining an individual's energy needs?
The amount of food that they eat
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) describe healthy ranges of intake for carbohydrate, fat, and protein, expressed as percentages of total energy intake.
TRUE
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the Dietary Guidelines and the MyPyramid?
The Dietary Guidelines provides recommendations for a healthy diet and the MyPyramid translates these recommendations into food choices
Which of the following statements is correct?
For those who have lost weight and want to keep it off, 60 to 90 minutes of moderate activity per day is recommended.
The Dietary Guidelines emphasize that the key to weight management is total calories consumed rather than the relative proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the diet
TRUE
A personalized MyPyramid can be obtained by submitting the following information at the mypyramid.gov site:
your weight, height, age, gender and activity
Looking at the Calories in this food, what percent of this macaroni and cheese is fat?
44%
The j-shaped organ that receives chewed and swallowed food for additional digestion is the:
stomach
Identify the organ that is NOT a part of the digestive system:
spleen
Identify the process that is regarded as absorption and not digestion.
Glucose moves into the cells of the small intestine and then into the blood stream.
Identify the organ that stores bile that is used for the digestion of fat.
gallbladder
Identify the organ that produces bile that is used for the digestion of fat.
liver
The lining of the small intestine is the area where nutrients in food may be digested and absorbed. This lining is best described by having a
brushy surface made of epithelial tissue.
What chemical substance initiates the release of other chemicals that ultimately result in digestion/absorption?
hormones
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) results when the acidic contents of the stomach regurgitate into the esophagus creating a burning sensation because unlike the stomach, the cells lining the esophagus do not
secrete mucous
The transit time for food in the large intestine is related to the amount of water and fiber in the diet because
water and fiber are responsible for the size (mass) and softness of the stool.
An individual who eats food contaminated with bacteria may be protected from the ill effects of the bacteria because of the presence of:
phagocytes and lymphocytes found in the small intestines
Foods like peanuts, tree nuts, milk, soy, and shellfish may contain proteins that act as foreign antigens leading to an immune reaction in the gastrointestinal tracts of some individuals.
TRUE
A person who is allergic to milk protein can avoid the allergic reaction by drinking lactose free milk.
FALSE
The addition of nutrients back to a food after they were removed by processing is referred to as _______.
enrichment
Foods that contain added refined sugars contribute __________ to the diet.
empty calories
In which of the following stages of processing is corn considered in a whole grain state?
A corn on the cob
Which monosaccharide is commonly found in all disaccharides?
glucose
Which of the following is an example of a complex carbohydrate?
glycogen
Which of the following category of complex carbohydrates is not digestible because they cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes?
fiber
Which type of fiber has a laxative effect by adding bulk to fecal matter as it passes, unchanged, through the gastrointestinal tract?
insoluble fiber
Where does most of the digestion and breakdown of starches and disaccharides occur?
small intestine
Which of the following best describes the effects of lactose intolerance on those who consume dairy products?
the undigested lactose passes into the large intestine, where it draws in water, is metabolized by bacteria, producing gas and causing abdominal distension, gas, cramping, and diarrhea
All of the following best describe the health impact of indigestible carbohydrates as a food source for bacteria in the colon, except?
enhancement of nutrient absorption in the colon
Which of the following hormones assists in normalizing blood glucose levels when blood sugar drops below normal?
glucagen
All of the following potentially adverse health conditions result when the body lacks sufficient dietary carbohydrates, except?
protein-sparing action
Which of the following are factors to consider in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus?
a diet providing unrefined carbohydrates and limited consumption of refined carbohydrates.
a limited intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol
weight management coupled with exercise and diet
Symptoms and complications of uncontrolled diabetes include all of the following except:
liver damage
What term is used to describe the process whereby bacteria on the teeth metabolize carbohydrates, producing tooth-damaging acids?
dental caries
Which of the following 3200-calorie diets is the least fattening?
high fat diet, high protein diet, high carbohydrate diet
Which type of dietary fiber blocks bile reabsorption and promotes dietary cholesterol excretion?
soluble fiber
Which of the following best represents how the typical US diet pattern compares to carbohydrate intake recommendations?
diet low in fiber, high in added sugar
The Adequate Intake for fiber is 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women; what is the typical intake for Americans?
about 15 g per day.
The component of meat responsible for its juiciness is the:
Fat content
Which of the following might be a hidden source of fat?
Muffin
Which statement is correct?
The total grams of fat in the American diet has stayed relatively constant over the past 40 years.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Triglycerides are used as sources of energy for cells
The family name of a fatty acid (i.e., omega 3, 6, 9, etc.) is related to the location of the first double bond counting from the methyl (CH3) end of the fatty acid chain.
TRUE
Which of the following statements about food fats is correct?
Coconut oil contains mostly saturated fatty acids
Fatty acids that are classified as essential cannot be made by the body; therefore, they must be obtained through the diet.
TRUE
Which of these statements regarding the digestion of fat is correct?
Bile emulsifies fat while pancreatic lipase breaks the bond between the glycerol and the fatty acids of fat in the small intestine.
Which of the following statements is correct?
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) Lipoproteins pick up cholesterol from cells and transport it to the liver so that it can be eliminated from the body.
Lipid stored in fat cells (adipose tissue) provides many benefits including
protection of organs and insulation for maintaining body temperature
In the event that you eat fewer calories than you need, which of the following is likely to occur?
the body will send hormones signaling the release of fat from adipose cells for energy use
Dietary fat alone is the cause of the plaque that leads to atherosclerosis and heart disease
FALSE
Look at the graph below. If the ice cream were fortified with twice as much vitamin D, the ice cream would be considered more nutrient dense than the milk.
FALSE
Essential nutrients are chemicals found in food that you must consume to meet your dietary requirements
TRUE
Manufacturers voluntarily fortified foods with Vitamin C to:
create a food that may be more nutritious but inadvertently may contribute to the overconsumption of Vitamin C.
Zoochemicals and phytochemicals may be added to foods to:
increase the health-promoting benefits of the food.
Fat is a nutrient that provides energy in the body at the rate of
9 Calories per gram
A carbohydrate-rich oat bar contains 20 grams of carbohydrate and is fortified with 5 grams of a food fiber which is a non digestible complex carbohydrate. How many Calories have you eaten when you consume this high fiber carbohydrate-rich oat bar:
80 Calories
An obese man could:
exhibit signs of both over nutrition and under nutrition
Dehydration is an example of a deficiency disease that:
occurs quickly after water is withheld from the diet.
You have two relatives, both 55 years old, and both have always eaten a diet of primarily fast food. One of these relatives has severe heart disease and the other has low cholesterol levels and no sign of heart disease. What is the best explanation for this?
These relatives do not share the same genetic predisposition for heart disease.
An elderly man who is otherwise healthy presents as slightly overweight and is diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. This would be best explained by which of the following?
The man has been eating food that exceeds his Calorie requirement, but not does meet his iron requirement.
Two college students are eating the same number of Calories and after a diet analysis their nutrient intakes are very similar. One student eats on the run has uses both vitamin and mineral supplements to meet his dietary needs. The other student eats a wide variety of healthy foods and does not take any supplements. Which of these statements is true?
The student eating the diet with variety gets additional health benefits from components in the foods that are healthful but not necessarily essential.