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The most abundant type of RNA.
Together with proteins, it forms the
structure of ribosomes

Ribosomal RNA

A family of enzymes, at least one for
each amino acid, that catalyzes the
attachment of an amino acid to its
specific tRNA molecule

Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase

The coding region of a eukaryotic
gene that is expressed. Exons are
separated from each other by introns.


The non-coding, intervening
sequence of a coding region (exon) in
eukaryotic genes.


A cell organelle constructed in the
nucleolus, consisting of two subunits
and functioning as the site of protein
synthesis in the cytoplasm


Modification of RNA before it leaves
the nucleus, a process unique to

RNA Processing

The order of triplets in a nucleotide
sequence (3 are possible but 1 is

Reading Frame

A specific nucleotide sequence in
DNA, flanking the start of a gene;
instructs RNA polymerase where to
start transcribing RNA


bond The covalent bond that holds
two amino acids together in a


The tRNA that recognizes the first
AUG codon

Initiator tRNA

The nuclear particle that facilitates the
splicing process


The removal of non-coding portions
of the RNA molecule after initial

RNA Splicing

Large cytoplasmic complex where
proteins marked with ubiquitin are
taken apart


An enzymatic RNA molecule that
catalyzes reactions during RNA


An enzyme that links together the
growing chain of ribonucleotides
during transcription.

RNA Polymerase

The rules that govern which amino
acid is specified by each codon

Genetic Code

A specialized base triplet on one end
of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a
particular complementary codon on
an mRNA molecule


The transfer of information from a
DNA molecule into an RNA molecule


The transfer of information from an
RNA molecule into a polypeptide,
involving a change of language from
nucleic acids to amino acids.


A type of RNA that attaches to
ribosomes in the cytoplasm and
specifies the primary structure of a


A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA
or mRNA that specifies a particular
amino acid or termination signal; the


An RNA molecule that functions as
an interpreter between nucleic acid
and protein language by picking up
specific amino acids and recognizing
the appropriate codons in the mRNA


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