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Psych 1001 Chapter 7 Memory Note Cards
Terms in this set (21)
What is the modal model of memory? What are the working processes of memory: attention, rehearsal, encoding and retrieval.
-Attention: Selects information from sensory memory
-Encoding: Sends information to long term store
-Retrieval: Brings information from LTM to working memory
-Rehearsal: Maintains information in working memory
What is Sensory memory? What is its capacity, duration and function? How did the Sperling study measure the duration and capacity of sensory memory?
-Info from the external environment. Tied closely to the perceptions of the world.
-It holds these perceptions for just a few seconds or less before passing some of them to short-term memory. Very large, scenic capacity. Its function is to briefly sustain sensations long enough for identification. Once info gets in, it only sticks around from ½ to 3 seconds.
- He performed an Iconic Memory Experiment in which he flashed 12 letters using either whole report or partial report.
What are echoic and iconic memory? What is the duration of each of these?
-Auditory sensory memory (5-10 seconds)
-Visual sensory memory (.5 seconds)
What is Short-term memory? What is its capacity, duration and function? What is chunking?
-Memory system that retains information for limited durations
-Function is to do conscious work/think. Can only be consciously aware of things in short term memory. It has a short capacity with a duration of only 10-15 seconds.
-Organizing material into meaningful groupings. Increases span of short-term memory/allows us to exceed Magic Number.
What is the magic number? How did Peterson and Peterson study the duration of short-term memory?
-The average human can memorize 7 plus or minus 2 items/pieces of information.
-They presented subjects with series of three-letter sequences and increased the number of times the participants had to wait to recall the letters. Some had to wait only three seconds and others had to wait up to 18 seconds.
What are the three levels of processing and what kinds of tasks are associated with each? Which will produce the best recall?
Visual processing pays attention to how sentence looks. Phonological processing pays attention to how words in the sentence sound and semantic processing pays attention to the meaning of the sentence. Semantic processing tends to produce more enduring long-term memories.
What is Long-term memory? What are its capacity, duration and function?
-Relatively enduring (from minutes to years) retention of information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills.
- Its function is to tie together past with present. Its capacity is enormous, unlimited, with a very long duration.
What are the different kinds of long-term memory? What kinds of memory are typical of each different kind?
-Explicit memories are recalled intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness. Implicit memories aren't deliberately remembered or reflected on consciously.
-There is episodic (recollection of events of our lives) and semantic (our knowledge of facts about the world) under explicit memory. There is procedural (memory for motor skills and habits) under implicit memory.
Who is Clive Wearing? What kinds of things could he remember and what kinds of things could he not remember as a result of his brain injury? What do these deficits and retentions indicate about memory?
-A music producer in Great Britain whose hippocampi was destroyed by a herpes virus. He had complete anterograde amnesia which is an inability to encode new memories from our experiences.
-Conclusion damage to the hippocampus impairs explicit memory, but leaves implicit memory intact.
What is the serial position effect? What is recency? What is primacy? What kind of memory seems to be involved in primacy? What kind of memory is involved in recency? If you want to eliminate the recency effect, what would you do?
-A graph curve that shows that people remember first few words in a list and last few words in a list. The first curve is more robust than the second.
-Recency: Remembering last few words on a (STM)
-Primacy: Remembering first few words on a list (LTM)
What is a mnemonic? What is imagery? What is the method of loci? What is the keyword method?
-Technique used to help encode info into long term memory that can later be retrieved. Forces you to think about meaning and relationships between meanings.
-Memorize locations/landmarks on a path and connect it with each point in speech/item to memorize
-Technique that helps with learning language in which you think of an English word that reminds of you of the word you're trying to remember.
What is a schema? How do schemas help/hinder memory?
-Organized knowledge structure or mental model that we've stored in our memory
-Schemas equip us with frames of reference for interpreting new situations. Without them, we'd find new information almost impossible to comprehend. On the other hand, they can lead us to remember things that never happened.
What is the difference between recall, recognition and relearning as measures of memory?
-Recall: Generating previously remembered information
-Recognition: Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options
-Relearning: Reacquiring knowledge that we'd previously learned but largely forgotten over time.
Who was Ebbinghaus, and what was his forgetting curve?
-A German researcher who tested his own recollection across differing time intervals. He found out that most of our forgetting occurs almost immediately after learning new material, with less and less forgetting after that.
-Shows how much faster information he relearned the second time following various delays
What is massed practice versus distributive practice? What are the helpful study hints derived from memory research
-Massed practice: Studying a large amount of material in a small period of time
-Distributive practice: Studying small increments of material over a longer period of time
What are the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon and encoding specificity (context-dependent learning; state-dependent learning.)
-Experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it.
-Phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it.
-Context-dependent learning: Superior retrieval of memories when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context
-State-dependent learning: Superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding
In forgetting, what is the difference between decay and interference? What does each of these look like as a cause of forgetting. What is retroactive interference? What is proactive interference?
-Decay: Fading of information from memory over time
-Interference: Loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information
-Retroactive interference: Interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information. "new interferes with the old"
-Proactive interference: Interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information. "old interferes with the new"
What is the role of the hippocampus and amygdala in memory? What is long-term potentiation?
-Amygdala helps us recall emotions associated with fear-provoking events and the hippocampus helps us recall events themselves.
-Gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons by repetitive stimulation over time.
What is anterograde amnesia? retrograde amnesia?
-Inability to encode new memories from our experiences
-Loss of memories from our past
What is a flashbulb memory? What is source monitoring? Memory illusions? What is a suggestive memory technique?
-Flashbulb memory: Emotional memory that is extraordinarily vivid and detailed (changes over time).
-Source monitoring: When we try to identify the origins of our memories by seeking cues about how we encoded them. Refers to our efforts to identify the origins (sources) of a memory.
-Suggestive memory technique:
What is the misinformation effect? Who is Elizabeth Loftus? What kinds of things increase the likelihood of false memories?
-Creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information about an event after it takes place.
-Psychologist who studied false memories. She found that procedures that strongly encourage people to recall memories often create recollections that were never present to begin with.
-It's easier to implant memory of a plausible event or a fictitious memory of an event from the distant path for which we have hazy or no recall than of an event form the recent past we are likely to remember.
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