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Oklahoma State Survey of American History Huston Test #2
Terms in this set (76)
1765-1815, an engineer who developed the steamboat.
steamboat transformed America by allowing people to travel on rivers upstream to transport goods and people.
1765-1825, American inventor who invented the cotton gin. The cotton gin changed the economy of the south by processing cotton much faster therefore making it more profitable. It also revolutionized american slavery.
1820-1840, cotton producing south, because of cotton slaves were still needed in south. resulting in tension about slavery between north and south.
Second Great Awakening *
1790-1820, religious revival movement the early decades of the nineteenth century, which resulted in the growth of secularism and rationalist religion; began the predominance of the baptist and methodist churches.
Cult of Domesticity
1820-1860, the idea that women were designed exclusively for the roles of wife and mother. That they should stay at home, submit to husbands and be pure in heart mind and body. Made women desire the same rights as men and supplements the start of women civil rights movement.
Erie Canal *
1817-1825, A canal that was built rom Albany, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, at Lake Erie. It created a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. The canal was the first transportation system between the eastern seaboard and the western interior of the United States that did not require portage. It was faster than carts pulled by draft animals, and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York and opened regions farther west to settlement.
1814 After the war of 1812 with the cut off of British imports there became a rise in demand for textile goods. The first large scale factory utilizing cotton looms was created in the States. This was constructed by a group of merchants in Waltham Massachusetts known as the Boston Associates.
Samuel Slater (1768-1835) was an early English-American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution" (a phrase coined by Andrew Jackson) and the "Father of the American Factory System." In the UK he was called "Slater the Traitor"  because he brought British textile technology to America, modifying it for United States use. He learned textile machinery as an apprentice to a pioneer in the British industry. Immigrating to the United States at the age of 21, he designed the first textile mills, and later went into business for himself, developing a family business with his sons. A wealthy man, he eventually owned thirteen spinning mills, and had developed tenant farms and company towns around his textile mills, such as Slatersville, Rhode Island.
A group liberal thinking people who made famous by thoreau's who follow the philosophy of escaping the established social path and creating their own. This philosophy also included aspects of escaping the modern markets system and reverting back to more natural ways of living. Simplify their lives.
Martin Van Buren
1830 the indian removal act provided funds for the uprooting of the Five civilized tribes with a population of 60,000 seize their lands and then move them.
The Bank War refers to the political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States (BUS) during the Andrew Jackson administration (1829-1837). Anti-Bank Jacksonian Democrats were mobilized in opposition to the national bank's re-authorization on the grounds that the institution conferred economic privileges on financial elites, violating U.S. constitutional principles of social equality. The Jacksonians considered the Second Bank of the U.S. to be an illegitimate corporation whose charter violated state sovereignty and therefore it posed an implicit threat to the agriculture-based economy dependent upon the U.S. southern states' widely practiced institution of slavery. With the Bank charter due to expire in 1836, the President of the Bank of the United States, Nicholas Biddle, in alliance with the National Republicans under Senator Henry Clay (KY) and Senator Daniel Webster (MA), decided to make rechartering a referendum on the legitimacy of the institution in the general election of 1832.
Second Party System*
Historians and political scientists use the phrase Second Party System as a term of periodization to designate the political party system operating in the United States from about 1828 to 1854, after the First Party System ended. The system was characterized by rapidly rising levels of voter interest, beginning in 1828, as demonstrated by Election Day turnouts, rallies, partisan newspapers, and high degrees of personal loyalty to parties.Two major parties dominated the political landscape: the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans and from other opponents of Jackson.
Alcohol reform 1820-1920 legislate morality
William LLoyd Garison
William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805 - May 24, 1879) was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded with Isaac Knapp in 1831 and published in Massachusetts until slavery was abolished by Constitutional amendment after the American Civil War. He was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. In the 1870s, Garrison became a prominent voice for the woman suffrage movement.
Seneca Falls Convention
1848, It was the first women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York. It was held to discuss the social, civil and religious rights of women. Seneca Falls Convention marked the beginning of the 70 year struggle for women suffrage.
1850-1900; Proslavery; Favored secession from Union; Blamed for Civil War (Bloody Shirt Issue); States' rights (especially on civil rights); Farmers; Feared strong central government; Opposed gold standard (usually); Used Spoils system; Supported lowering tariff (1887); Reduced government role in railroad building; opposed imperialism in 1890s
1833 South caroline refused to comply with the New tariff on imported goods and so jackson received permission from from congress to enact a force bill authorizing the army and navy to collect customs duties.
Henry Clay and The American System
The Oneida Community was a religious commune founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, New York. The community believed that Jesus had already returned in AD 70, making it possible for them to bring about Jesus's millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven (a belief called Perfectionism). The Oneida Community practiced Communalism (in the sense of communal property and possessions), Complex Marriage, Male Continence, Mutual Criticism and Ascending Fellowship
American Colonization Society
e American Colonization Society (ACS; in full, "The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America"), established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey, was an attempt to satisfy two groups in America. Ironically, these groups were on opposite ends of the spectrum involving slavery in the early 1800s, as well as the primary vehicle to support the colonization of free African Americans because their presence served as "a perpetual excitement" to the enslaved blacks. All of the early organizers of the Society were slaveowners, who hoped thereby to strengthen the institution of slavery, according to the annual reports of the Society. It helped to found the colony of Liberia in 1821-22 as a place for free-born blacks. Among its supporters were Charles Fenton Mercer, Henry Clay, John Randolph, and Richard Bland Lee.
The Liberty Party was a minor political party in the United States in the 1840s (with some offshoots surviving into the 1850s and 1860s). The party was an early advocate of the abolitionist cause. It broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) to advocate the view that the Constitution was an anti-slavery document; William Lloyd Garrison, leader of the AASS, held the contrary view that the Constitution should be condemned as an evil pro-slavery document. The party included abolitionists who were willing to work within electoral politics to try to influence people to support their goals; the radical Garrison, by contrast, opposed voting and working within the system.
Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, c. February 1818 - February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writings. He stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Even many Northerners at the time found it hard to believe that such a great orator had once been a slave.
Compromise of 1850
1850, The Compromise of 1850 was an attempt to smooth out the confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The Compromise of 1850 allowed California to be admitted as a free state and the admission of New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory with slavery was left to to the decision of the people in relation to Popular Sovereignty on Slavery. It gave the north a better position than south in the abolitionist movement.
Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott (circa 1799 - September 17, 1858) was an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857, popularly known as the "Dred Scott Decision." Scott claimed that he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they had lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory for four years, where slavery was illegal. The United States Supreme Court decided 7-2 against Scott, finding that neither he nor any other person of African ancestry could claim citizenship in the United States, and therefore Scott could not bring suit in federal court under diversity of citizenship rules. Moreover, Scott's temporary residence outside Missouri did not bring about his emancipation under the Missouri Compromise, which the court ruled unconstitutional as it would "improperly deprive Scott's owner of his legal property."
Election of 1860
1862-1863, president Lincoln issued a primary proclamation freeing slaves in areas under confederate control. It led the way to total abolition of slavery in the United States. With the Emancipation Proclamation, the aim of the war changed to include the freeing of slaves in addition to preserving the Union.
Vicks Burg and Gettysburg
1846, proposal to prohibit slavery in any land acquired in the Mexican war, but southern senators defeated the the measure in 1846 and 1847. it divided the democratic party and the nation over the issue of slaver.
Kanas- Nebraska Act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 (10 Stat. 277) created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory. The act was designed by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois. The initial purpose of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to open up many thousands of new farms and make feasible a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad. The popular sovereignty clause of the law led pro- and anti-slavery elements to flood into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery up or down, leading to Bloody Kansas.
John Browns Invasion of Harpers Ferry
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry (also known as John Brown's raid or The raid on Harpers Ferry; in many books the town is called "Harper's Ferry") was an attempt by the white abolitionist John Brown to start an armed slave revolt in 1859 by seizing a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown's raid, accompanied by 21 men in his party, was defeated by a detachment of U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E. Lee. John Brown had originally asked Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass, both of whom he had met in his formative years as an abolitionist in Springfield, Massachusetts, to join him in his raid, but Tubman was prevented by illness, and Douglass declined, as he believed Brown's plan would fail.
Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam /ænˈtiːtəm/, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the South, fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Union soil. It is the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with a combined tally of dead, wounded, and missing at 22,717.
Shermans's March through Georgia
Presidential Plan of Reconstruction*
Congressional Plan of Reconstruction*
1867, The Congressional Plan, or Radical Republican Plan, was meant to aid newly freed slaves and to punish the South. It first passed several laws helping newly freed slaves, such as The Civil Rights Act It also extended the life of the Freedmen's Bureau. It then passed a series of laws known as The Reconstruction Acts. These laws were vetoed by Johnson, but the vetoes were easily overridden and these laws were put into effect. The Reconstruction Acts basically divided the South into 5 military districts with the military commander of the district given complete authority. No state would be allowed back into the Union until it ratified the 14th Amendment and guaranteed the right to vote for African American men. And later, for some states, the 15th Amendment had to be ratified, too. The 14th Amendment punished Confederate supporters and gave citizenship to former slaves. It also said that no state could deny to anyone, including African Americans, the equal protection of the law and due process of law. The 15th amendment stated that the right to vote could not be denied on the basis of race. Eventually all states were readmitted under this plan.
In United States history, a carpetbagger was a Northerner who moved to the South after the American Civil War, during the Reconstruction era (1865-1877). White Southerners denounced them fearing they would loot and plunder the defeated South. Sixty Carpetbaggers were elected to Congress, and they included a majority of Republican governors in the South during Reconstruction. Historian Eric Foner argues:
Compromise of 1877
Deal made by a Republican and Democratic special congressional commission to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876. Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was declared the winner in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from involvement in politics in the south, marking the end of reconstruction.
J. Pierpont Morgan
John Pierpont "J.P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 - March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. He was instrumental in the creation of the United States Steel Corporation.
1835-1919, Scottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He was a very generous donor who gave 35o million dollars to charities and organizations. Monopolized the steel industry and helped create the rise of big business.
Knights of Labor
The Knights of Labor (K of L), officially Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. Its most important leader was Terence V. Powderly. The Knights promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected socialism and anarchism, demanded the eight-hour day, and promoted the producers ethic of republicanism. In some cases it acted as a labor union, negotiating with employers, but it was never well organized, and after a rapid expansion in the mid-1880s, it suddenly lost its new members and became a small operation again.
The Haymarket affair (also known as the Haymarket massacre or Haymarket riot) was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day and in reaction to the killing of several workers the previous day by the police. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians; scores of others were wounded.
1870s, the idea that ideas like natural selection and survival of the fittest applied to business and politics the same way they do in biology. Social Darwinism favored those who are at the top, so it created racism and it supported large monopolies because they have the traits that are better than others.
Social Gospel Movement
The Social Gospel was a Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war. Theologically, the Social Gospellers sought to operationalize the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:10): "Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven." They typically were post-millennialist; that is, they believed the Second Coming could not happen until humankind rid itself of social evils by human effort. The Social
Impeachment of Trial of Johnson
Didnt work as well becuase of high taxes post reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), or simply "the Klan", is the name of three distinct past and present movements in the United States that have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism aimed at groups or individuals whom they opposed. The first organization sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South during the Reconstruction Era, especially by using violence against African American leaders. With numerous chapters across the South, it was suppressed around 1871, through federal enforcement. The second group was founded in 1915 and after 1921 it rapidly expanded into a very large nationwide organization. It opposed Catholics and Jews, especially newer immigrants. The current manifestation consists of numerous small unconnected groups that use the KKK name. All three movements have called for the purification of American society, and all are considered right wing extremist organizations. 1865-present
Dawes Severalty Act
1887, named after Henry L. Dawes, an act that broke up the land of nearly all indian tribes into small parcels to be distributed to indian families. The act proved to be a huge failure with the loss of much tribal land and erosion of indian culture. Indians lost 86 million of the 138 million acres that were available.
Thomas A. Edison
John D. Rockefeller*
1839-1937, began career as a clerk for a merchant and rose to dominate industry. He started the Standard Oil Company which arranged secret deals with railroad companies and fixing prices and production quotas. He established a monopoly which controlled the drilling, refining, storage and distribution of oil. He controlled 90 percent of the industry and helped create the rise of big business.
American Federation of Labor
William Marcy Tweed
Interstate Commerce Commission
Populist party (peoples Party
A bunch of Farmers that are losing their farms. their political platforms of the populist party are crazy. They meet for a convention in Omaha Nebraska. Want to nationalize the railroads and make silver free. Wanted a subtreasury meant to prop up prices for farmers
Election of 1896
1896, Election between Republican candidate William McKinley vs William Jennings Bryan. William McKinley gained the support of Big business and monopoly. McKinley won the election and country continued on with big business and an industrial country.
The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications of voters, subject to limitations imposed by later amendments. Until the 1910s, most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the United States, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote. It effectively overruled Minor v. Happersett, in which a unanimous Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give women the right to vote.
The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census. This amendment exempted income taxes from the constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes, after income taxes on rents, dividends, and interest were ruled to be direct taxes in the court case of Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895). The amendment was adopted on February 3, 1913.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Federal Reserve Act
1913, an Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Note and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. Created the central banking system and thereby laid the foundation of the modern U.S. financial system.
William J. Bryan
Plessy v. Ferguson
lessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896), was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal". The decision was handed down by a vote of 7 to 1 with the majority opinion written by Justice Henry Billings Brown and the dissent written by Justice John Marshall Harlan.
"seperate but equal"
Theodore Roosevelt (/ˈroʊzəvɛlt/ roh-zə-velt;[a] October 27, 1858 - January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States, from 1901 to 1909. A leader of the Republican Party, he was a leading force of the Progressive Era. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt embraced a strenuous lifestyle and successfully regained his health. He integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he became a lifelong naturalist before attending Harvard College. His first of many books, The Naval War of 1812 (1882), established his reputation as both a learned historian and a popular writer. He entered politics, becoming the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to the wilderness and operated a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. He returned to run unsuccessfully for Mayor of New York City in 1886. He served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under William McKinley, resigning after one year to serve with the Rough Riders, gaining national fame for courage during the War in Cuba. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898. A frustrated party establishment made him McKinley's running mate in the election of 1900. He campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinley win reelection by a landslide on a platform of peace, prosperity, and conservatism.
Robert M La Follette