Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
1670's; Dutch lensmaker; first described "animalcules" which were probably first seen bacteria
1977; by work with rRNA analysis, he developed the three domain system (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya) used today
1995; with colleagues, produced the first complete genome sequence of an organism (Haemophilus influenza)
mid 1800s; German botanist; classified bacteria based on their cell shape; first to classify algae as plants; also regarded bacteria as members of the plant kingdom; discovered heat-resistant endospores in study of Bacillus
late 1800s; developed germ theory counter to spontaneous generation (life comes from chemicals); linked bacteria to decay and disease; showed that microorganisms caused fermentation and that heating them would stop it; pioneered ideas of vaccination and immunity ; developed first rabies vaccine
late 1800s; German physician; linked sick cattle to disease in local population; saw black cysts on formers and linked them to Bacillus anthracis endospores in soil; first to isolate Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; first to link a specific bacterium to causing a specific disease and developed postulates as a criteria for doing so; helped develop the petri dish with one of his lab workers, Julius Petri
1)The specific bacterium must be present in diseased animals and not in healthy animals
2)The bacterium must be isolated and obtained in pure culture.
3)The pure culture is used to inoculate a healthy animal, and this animal must become sick with the disease.
4)The same bacterium is isolated again from the newly infected animal.
***#2 does not account for healthy carriers***
early 1900s; German scientist; developed Salvarsan, the first antimicrobial chemical, to treat syphilis; Salvarsan was the first example of chemotherapy, was called the magic bullet, was arsenic based, and had a 40-50% chance of killing the patient
early 1900s; Scottish pharmacologist; discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin, in 1928 when he noticed contaminating mold that killed Staphylococcus
around 1900; US Army physician; first to show that insect vectors can spread disease, by linking Yellow Fever to certain mosquitoes
1660s; first to use the word "cells"; published various microscopic illustrations that were likely microorganisms, probably fungi
developed staining technique used today that is used to analyze bacteria by the characteristics of their cell walls