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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

1670's; Dutch lensmaker; first described "animalcules" which were probably first seen bacteria

Golden Age of Microbiology

the years 1850-1930 where considered this

Beadle and Tatum

1941; these two composed the "one gene-one enzyme" hypothesis

Watson and Crick

1953; these two were key in discovery of the double helix structure of DNA

Carl Woese

1977; by work with rRNA analysis, he developed the three domain system (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya) used today

Craig Ventner

1995; with colleagues, produced the first complete genome sequence of an organism (Haemophilus influenza)

Ferdinand Cohn

mid 1800s; German botanist; classified bacteria based on their cell shape; first to classify algae as plants; also regarded bacteria as members of the plant kingdom; discovered heat-resistant endospores in study of Bacillus

Louis Pasteur

late 1800s; developed germ theory counter to spontaneous generation (life comes from chemicals); linked bacteria to decay and disease; showed that microorganisms caused fermentation and that heating them would stop it; pioneered ideas of vaccination and immunity ; developed first rabies vaccine

Robert Koch

late 1800s; German physician; linked sick cattle to disease in local population; saw black cysts on formers and linked them to Bacillus anthracis endospores in soil; first to isolate Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; first to link a specific bacterium to causing a specific disease and developed postulates as a criteria for doing so; helped develop the petri dish with one of his lab workers, Julius Petri

Koch's postulates

1)The specific bacterium must be present in diseased animals and not in healthy animals
2)The bacterium must be isolated and obtained in pure culture.
3)The pure culture is used to inoculate a healthy animal, and this animal must become sick with the disease.
4)The same bacterium is isolated again from the newly infected animal.
***#2 does not account for healthy carriers***

Paul Ehrlich

early 1900s; German scientist; developed Salvarsan, the first antimicrobial chemical, to treat syphilis; Salvarsan was the first example of chemotherapy, was called the magic bullet, was arsenic based, and had a 40-50% chance of killing the patient

Alexander Fleming

early 1900s; Scottish pharmacologist; discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin, in 1928 when he noticed contaminating mold that killed Staphylococcus

Walter Reed

around 1900; US Army physician; first to show that insect vectors can spread disease, by linking Yellow Fever to certain mosquitoes

Robert Hooke

1660s; first to use the word "cells"; published various microscopic illustrations that were likely microorganisms, probably fungi

Christian Gram

developed staining technique used today that is used to analyze bacteria by the characteristics of their cell walls

Second Golden Age

currently, we are considered to be in this era of microbiology, particularly in areas of microbial diversity and environmental microbiology

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