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58 terms

Enviornment by Raven/Berg - Chapter 3

Ecosystems and Energy
STUDY
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Ernst Haeckel
19th-century scientist, developed the concept of ecology
biotic
any living or previously living component of an environment
abiotic
describes the nonliving part of the environment, including water, rocks, light, and temperature
ecology
the study of systems that include interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
species
a group of similar organisms whose members freely interbreed with one another in the wild to produce fertile offspring; members of one species general do not interbreed with other species of organisms
population
a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area at the same time
community
a natural association that consists of all the populations of different species that live and interact within an area at the same time
ecosystem
a community and its physical environmental
landscape
a region that includes several interacting ecosystems
biosphere
the parts of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and soil that contain all living organisms
landscape ecology
a subdiscipline of ecology that studies sociological processes that operate over large areas
atmosphere
the gaseous envelope surrounding Earth
lithosphere
the soil and rock of Earth's crust
energy
the capacity or ability to do work
chemical energy
energy stored in the bonds of molecules
radiant energy
energy that is transmitted as electromagnetic waves
solar energy
radiant energy from the sun
thermal energy
the heat that flows form an object with a higher temperature (the heat source) to an object with a lower temperature (the heat sink)
mechanical energy
energy in the movement of matter
electrical energy
energy that flows as charged particles
kilocalorie
kilocalorie the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1˚ C (or 4.184 kilojoules)
potential energy
stored energy
kinetic energy
Energy contained in moving objects such as a rock rolling down a hill, the wind blowing through the trees, or water flowing over a dam.
thermodynamics
the study of energy and its transformations
closed energy system
energy in system is self-contained & isolated
open energy system
system exchanges energy with its surroundings
1st law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, although it can change from on form to another
2nd law of thermodynamics
States that, with each successive energy transfer or transformation in a system, less energy is available to do work OR entropy (disorder) in a system increase over time
entropy
a measure of the randomness or disorder of a system
photosynthesis
the biological process that captures light energy and transforms it in the chemical energy of organic molecules (such as glucose), which are manufactured from carbon dioxide and water. Preformed by plants, algae, and several kinds of bacteria. Compare chemosynthesis.
chlorophyll
a green pigment that absorbs radiant energy for photosynthesis
cellular respiration
makes the chemical energy stored in glucose and other food molecules available to the cell for biological work Compare aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.
aerobic respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to break down organic molecules to release energy that can be used for biological work. Compare with anaerobic respiration.
anaerobic respiration
the process by which cell breakdown organic molecules in the absence of oxygen to release energy that can be use for biological work. Compare aerobic respiration.
hydrothermal vent
a hot spring on the seafloor where a solution of hot mineral-rich water rises to the surface. Many hydrothermal vents support thriving communities.
chemosynthesis
the biological process by which certain bacteria take inorganic compounds from their environment and use them to obtain energy and make carbohydrate molecules; light is not required for this process. Compare photosynthesis.
High Quality Energy
Energy that can be used or converted into something else.
Low Quality Energy
Energy that is lost or cannot be used again.
energy flow
the passage of energy in a one-way direction through an ecosystem
autotrophs
producers: an organism (such as a plant) that manufactures complex organic molecules from simple inorganic substances
heterotrophs
consumers: an organism that cannot synthesize its own food fro inorganic materials and therefore must use the bodies of other organisms as sources of energy and body-building materials
primary consumers
The herbivores in an ecosystem; organisms that feed on primary producers (autotrophs)
secondary consumers
The carnivores in an ecosystem; organisms that feed on primary consumers (herbivores)
tertiary consumers
Carnivores that eat other Carnivores (secondary consumers)
detritivores
detritus feeder: an organism (such as a earthworm or crab) that consumes fragments of dead organic matter
saprotrophs
decomposers: heterotrophs that break down dead organic material and use the decompositions products to supply themselves with energy
food chain
the successive series of organisms through which energy flows in an ecosystem. Each organism in the series eats or decomposes the preceding organism in the chain. Compare food web.
trophic level
Step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem.
food web
a representation of the interlocking food chain that connect all organisms in an ecosystem
krill
tiny, shrimp-like animals that are important in the Antarctic food web
ecological pyramid
a graphic representation of the relative energy value at each trophic level. Compare pyramid of biomass, pyramid of energy, and pyramid of numbers.
pyramid of numbers
a graphic representation of the relative energy value at each trophic level. Compare pyramid of biomass, pyramid of energy, and pyramid of numbers.
pyramid of biomass
an ecological pyramid that illustrates the total biomass (for example the total dry weight of all organisms) at each successive trophic level in an ecosystem, Compare pyramid of biomass, pyramid of energy, and pyramid of numbers.
pyramid of energy
an ecological pyramid that shows the energy flow through each trophic level in an ecosystem. Compare pyramid of biomass, pyramid of energy, and pyramid of numbers.
gross primary productivity (GPP)
the total amount of photosynthetic energy that plants capture and assimilate in a given period
net primary productivity (NPP)
productivity after respiration losses are subtracted
What are the most productive ecosystems on land and in the water?
The most productive ecosystem on land is the tropical rain forest, and the most productive ecosystem in the water is the coral reef.
Consumers
An organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains; heterotrophs