4150 Exam 1
Terms in this set (37)
refers to tourism development in urban areas- a set of tourist resources or activities located in towns and cities
is a town of 5,000 residents
is a town of 10 million
specialized resorts have been created (ie. Disney world)
tourism historical cities
attract tourists with its historic or cultural identities (Philly)
places constructing infrastructure to attract tourists (ie. Mansfield, Ohio)
an evolutionary process related to tourist activites
category of cities in tourism development
-struggling cities (northern climate cities)
-growth cities (southern cities)
-world cities (social cultural capital cities)
Changes in American cities
-Shifts in population between Frostbelt and Sunbelt.
-Shifts between urban population to surrounding suburbs of the metropolitan area.
-The older commercial districts of downtown areas has changed with less corporate headquarter buildings in downtown and more in the suburbs (outside city limits).
-Expansion of the highway system has provided an increase in the number of people moving from the downtown urban areas to suburbs and outlying areas surrounding cities.
-Shopping areas in downtown urban cores have been reduced since retailers built malls and shopping areas in suburbs and outlying areas where more of the residents and shoppers are now located.
-Increased reorganization of the city's activities that can produce economic impacts from tourists.
To produce a need for entrepreneurial city
-Pro-active role of the city to pursue economic development.
-Competitive with other cities for industry, residents and tourists.
-Innovative: Seeking unique and creative ideas to provide distinctive attractions and events.
-Boosterism: Constant promotion of the city's benefits by business/non-profit organizational leaders and government.
-Partnerships: Development of public (government) and private (commercial businesses).
-Promoting the city through an image (Development of a Branded image or Development of special events to enhance the city's image).
-Pursuit of Flagship developments such as convention centers or distinctive museum or iconic architecture to distinguish the city and better compete with other cities.
specific areas chosen by travelers for temporary stays
induced self-contained and organic destinations
it is created for the purpose to satisfy the tourists demand. Would not exist without tourists
tourism is only part of the "place" or geographic area, which includes all the components of the tourism supply
maximum number of people who can use a site without an unacceptable alteration in the physical, societal, economic, cultural (natural and host) environment and without an unacceptable decline in the quality of the experience gained by the visitors
Long-term balance in tourism development that maximizes the benefits and reduces the costs associated with the natural and socio-cultural environment and economic systems.
two developmental philosophies of destination
sustainability and competitiveness
Balance benefits and costs for a destination
Preserve the uniqueness of the destination
Enhance the destination
-External competition against other destinations
(i.e. Las Vegas vs Orlando, Florida)
-Internal competition - Competition between suppliers within a destination
Hotels vs. Bed & breakfast within Sandusky area
Museum vs Zoo in a city
five basic elements of a destination
Doxey's Irritation Index
Stage 1. Euphoria - hosts anticipate substantial income from tourism and are excited to see the first tourists arrive
Stage 2. Apathy - with increased numbers of tourists locals loose interest; increased outside investors take much of the revenue
Stage 3. Irritation - more tourists require infrastructure investments and locals feel invaded; tourists are not guests, they are sources of income
Stage 4. Antagonism - numbers of tourists surpass carrying capacity; locals become covert & overt aggression to visitors
Tourism in the US economy
-Tourism is the 3rd largest industry with respect to revenues
-Tourism is 2nd largest industry with respect to employment
-Tourism directly employs 7 million Americans
-Tourism indirectly accounts for 16 million other jobs
-Jobs are especially accessible to disadvantaged sectors of society
-Tourism is an industry especially compatible with isolated and developing regions
people visiting a destination other than their normal place of residence, staying at least one night, but less than 12 months and whose main purpose is not an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
visitors spend less than 24 hours (usually not overnight)
outsiders visit us
we visit outside
inbound and outbound
visitors travel within their own country
tourism we do inside and outside
tourism done inside by us and by outsiders
why choose tourism?
Positive economic factors may induce the public sector to promote tourism development:
1) Regional development
2) Diversification of the economy
3) Increased income levels
4) Increased State revenues (taxes)
5) New employment opportunities
-Niche T. Market: Medical T (TODAY)
tourism brings important economic gains and helps develop communities and countries (50s & 60s
tourism has hidden economic costs and negative ecological and cultural impacts (70s)
finding alternative forms of tourism is the solution (80s)
understand how tourism occurs to develop best strategies of development (2000)
new tourism challenge
safety and security