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Physiology Unit 3: The Brain and Nervous System
Terms in this set (42)
What is the Central Nervous System composed of?
brain and spinal cord (integrating center)
The CNS is bathed inside and out by the ____ that has similar composition to the plasma and is seen as the interstitial fluid of the CNS
The CNS receives how much of the blood pumped by the heart?
How much oxygen and glucose does the brain consume?
20% oxygen, 50% glucose intake
Interruption in blood flow and blockage of blood vessels in CNS can cause irreversible damage such as a ____
What two things are not available in the CNS
glycogen not stored, fatty acids not available
this kind of stroke is a blockage of the artery to the brain where the carotid artery can get clogged; blood cannot get to the brain
this kind of stroke is the weakening of the artery to brain which generally busts (aneurysm); symptoms of this are generally severe head aches because blood is pushing against weakened walls and causes pain
hemorrhagic stroke (may be hereditary)
function of the blood-brain barrier aided
protects CNS from harmful substances
Which molecules are able to penetrate the brain from the blood?
small molecules such as gasses and hydrophobic molucules
Which molecules are not able to penetrate the brain from the blood?
large molecules such as bacteria and proteins and hyrophilic molecules
If large molecules get into the brain, how is this possible?
Which kind of adhesion restricts transport between endothelial cells?
What are the five things that can enter into the CSF?
glucose, potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium
What cannot generally enter into the CSF and have a much higher concentration of plasma?
What are the three parts of the brain?
Forebrain, Cerebellum, and Brainstem
The forebrain consists of which two pieces?
Cerebrum and the Diencephalon
This part of the forebrain contains the cetebral cortex (surface) and subcortical nuclei (deeper)
What are the functions of the cerebral cortex?
carries out highest level of neuron processing; perceptions, ideas, memory, motor control all originates here; integrating center that receives and processes sensory information to formulate thoughts and actions
What does the diencephalon contain?
thalamus and hypothalamus
Which part of the brain filters and refines sensory information before it reaches the cerebral cortex and is involved in motor movement control allowing you to focus on deciding what's important and what's not?
Which part of the brain releases tropic hormones to anterior pituitary and produces hunger and thirst, regulates body temperature, and is involved in emotions?
The part of the brain that functions in motor coordination and balance and provides feedback to produce smooth motor movements?
Which part of the brain connects the cerebellum to the spinal cord?
What are the 3 regions of the Brainstem?
midbrain; pons; medulla oblongata
This part of the brain controls sleep-wake cycles, consciousness, arousal of cerebral cortex (via reticular formation), processes cranial nerve information, regulates autonomic functions such as cardiovascular and respiratory control.
Coordinates voluntary movements
Sends info to face or down for movement to occurs (voluntary movement)
primary motor cotex
somesthetic sensations and proprioception; feelings of external sensory stimuli (touch); also allows your muscles to contract and relax while balancing and rocking in your comfortable posture
primary somatosensory cortex
integration of sensory information and balance equilibrium
sensory association areas
higher vision processing
visual association areas
primary visual cortex
involved in hearing input and integrating sounds
auditory association areas
where all sounds are put together and where all audible sounds are used to process
Primary auditory cortex
emotions, learning, memory
Limbic association cortex
smell and the degree of each smell
involved in speech formation using tongue, lips and throat
idea and plan for voluntary movement, thoughts, and personality
prefrontal association areas
involved in communication of verbal and non-verbal cues and works with fine motor control
collection of areas that function in learning and emotions; controls "basic drives"
Name 5 parts of the limbic system:
amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, fornix, hippocampus,
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