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Equivalent vectors have the same

magnitude and direction

Magnitude is also called


A symbol for Magnitude is


Component form of a vector is

(V1, V2)

To find component form, you need to remember

Terminal - Initial

To get 2 vectors into one, you...

add them together

To find the magnitude you....

√(〖V1〗^2+〖V2〗^2 )

Vector addition:

add V1 and U1, and add V2 and U2

Scalar multiplication:

(KV1, KV2)

A negative scalar....

Reverses the direction of the vector

A vector u in length llull = 1

is a unit vector

Formula to find the unit vector in the direction of v is

v / llvll (vector / magnitude)

If the direction is negative...

add 180 degrees until it's in the correct quadrant!

Direction angle formula




total force


true direction

direction formulla

Dot product formula for u . v

(U1 V1) + (U2 V2)



Vectors orthogonal if they equal


Find parallel by

looking at ratios between components

Space vectors are

(V1, V2, V3)

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