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Cardiovascular systems & Lymphoid System - Immunity

STUDY
PLAY
lung
Which of these organs is NOT found in the mediastinum?

1. esophagus
2. trachea
3. lung
4. pericardial sac
right atrium
Blood flowing in the vena cava will next enter the ____.

1. right ventricle
2. left ventricle
3. right atrium
4. left atrium
right atrium
Cardiac veins empty their blood into the __________.

1. left atrium
2. right atrium
3. left ventricle
4. right ventricle
calcium
During the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential, which ion is entering the cardiac muscle cell?

1. potassium
2. calcium
3. sodium
4. hydrogen
R
Which wave is the largest in the electrocardiogram?

1. P
2. R
3. Q
4. S
SA node
The conducting system in the heart begins in the ____.

1. AV bundle
2. AV node
3. Purkinje fibers
4. SA node
closing of the mitral valve
[ventricular systole = the contraction of the heart ventricles. It begins with the first heart sound]
Ventricular systole begins with the __________.

1. closing of the aortic valve
2. opening of the mitral valve
3. opening of the aortic valve
4. closing of the mitral valve
The first is true; the second is false.
The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right; the left ventricle pumps more blood than the right. Are these two statements true or false?

1. The first is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.
blood pressure
Which of these is NOT needed to determine cardiac output?

1. heart rate
2. end systolic volume
3. blood pressure
4. end diastolic volume
increased end-systolic volume
Which of these responses by the heart will sympathetic stimulation NOT cause?

1. increased end-systolic volume
2. increased heart rate
3. increased cardiac output
4. increased stroke volume
capillaries
The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are _____.

1. capillaries
2. arterioles
3. tunica intima
4. arteries
arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

1. right ventricle
2. smooth muscle in the tunica media
3. arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
4. venous pressure greater than arterial pressure
forces more fluid across the endothelium
Elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure ____.

1. raises arterial pressure
2. lowers heart rate
3. raises heart rate
4. forces more fluid across the endothelium
medulla oblongata
Which brain region contains the cardiovascular centers?

1. hypothalamus
2. pons
3. medulla oblongata
4. thalamus
an increase in urine production
Hemorrhage triggers ALL of these responses EXCEPT __________.


1. release of the venous reserve
2. an increase in urine production
3. an increase in heart rate
4. an increase in erythropoiesis
deoxygenated; to
The pulmonary trunk carries ___________ blood __________ the lung.

1. oxygenated; from
2. oxygenated; to
3. deoxygenated; to
4. deoxygenated; from
coronary
Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the aortic arch?

1. left subclavian
2. left carotid
3. brachiocephalic
4. coronary
femoral
Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the abdominal aorta?

1. iliac
2. femoral
3. splenic
4. renal
ligamentum arteriosum
The remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus is the _____.


1. fossa ovalis
2. foramen ovale
3. umbilical strand
4. ligamentum arteriosum
decrease in arterial wall stiffness
All of these changes in the cardiovascular system are commonly seen in aging EXCEPT _______.

1. decrease in hematocrit
2. decrease in arterial wall stiffness
3. decrease in cardiac output
4. decrease in valve efficiency
Lymphocytes
Which cell type is essential to the immune response?

1. monocytes
2. keratinocytes
3. lymphocytes
4. fibrocytes
Plasma & Interstitial fluid
The composition of lymph is most similar to __________.

Select ALL that apply:

1. gastric juice
2. blood
3. plasma
4. interstitial fluid
Y2K
All of these types of cells are lymphocytes EXCEPT ___________.

1. NK
2. Y2K
3. B
4. T
lymphocytes
Which of these defense cells are NOT phagocytic?

1. lymphocytes
2. neutrophils
3. macrophages
4. eosinophils
It must be acquired
Which of these is NOT a property of the immune response?

1. It may be cell-mediated.
3. It must be acquired.
3. It is triggered by an antigen.
4. It may be antibody-mediated
cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Which defense cells can specifically identify and directly kill disease cells?

1. suppressor T lymphocytes
2. cytotoxic T lymphocytes
3. plasma cells
4. B lymphocytes
helper T cells
Which defense cells secretes lymphokines that regulate immunity?

1. helper T cells
2. CD8 cells
3. memory T cells
4. B lymphocytes
B cells have all of these properties
B cells are __________.

1. capable of division
2. sensitized by exposure to antigen
3. activated by helper T cells
4. B cells have all of these properties
Immunoglobulin B
Each of these is a class of immunoglobulins EXCEPT __________.

1. Immunoglobulin A
2. Immunoglobulin M
3. Immunoglobulin G
4. Immunoglobulin B
allergy
Delayed hypersensitivity is a type of __________.

1. allergy
2. skin infection
3. immunodeficiency disease
4. autoimmune disease
closing of the mitral valve
Ventricular systole begins with the __________.

1. closing of the mitral valve
2. opening of the mitral valve
3. closing of the aortic valve
4. opening of the aortic valve
decreased ADH secretion
In the case of hemorrhage, the body mobilizes ALL these defenses EXCEPT _________.


1. increased peripheral resistance
2. increased heart rate
3. decreased ADH secretion
4. increased thirst
All of these are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.
The cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata control __________.

1. heart rate
2. cardiac contractility
3. peripheral resistance
4. All of these are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.
The Liver
Most of the plasma proteins required in the coagulation process are produced by __________.

1. the liver
2. lymph nodes
3. platelets
4. megakaryocytes
Purified platelets
If a patient has thrombocytopenia, the best therapy is infusion of __________.

1. plasma
2. packed RBCs
3. whole blood
4. purified platelets
arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

1. arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
2. smooth muscle in the tunica media
3. venous pressure greater than arterial pressure
4. right ventricle
deoxygenated; to
The pulmonary trunk carries ___________ blood __________ the lung.


1. deoxygenated; to
2. oxygenated; to
3. oxygenated; from
4. deoxygenated; from
Q-T interval
The duration of the ventricular action potential is approximately equal to the __________ interval in the electrocardiogram.

1. QRS duration
2. Q-T interval
3. PR interval
4. ST interval
SA node
The conducting system in the heart begins in the __________.

1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV node
3. SA node
4. AV bundle
left atrium
Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the __________.

1. right atrium
2. pulmonary valve
3. pulmonary trunk
4. left atrium
end-systolic volume
The volume of blood remaining in the ventricle as diastole begins is called the __________.

1. stroke volume
2. cardiac reserve
3. end-systolic volume
4. end-diastolic volume
Radial
The brachial artery branches to form the ulnar and __________ arteries.

1. axillary
2. digital
3. palmar
4. radial
transport clotting factors
An important function of thrombocytes is to __________.

1. transport clotting factors
2. transport thrombopoietin
3. transport nutrients
4. transport blood gases
capillaries
The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are __________.

1. capillaries
2. tunica intima
3. arteries
4. arterioles
aortic
The __________ valve prevents backward flow of blood into the left ventricle.


1. bicuspid
2. aortic
3. tricuspid
4. pulmonic
precapillary sphincters
Vasomotion refers to contraction-relaxation cycles of the __________.


1. precapillary sphincters
2. thoroughfare channels
3. arteriovenous anastomoses
4. venules
They are abundant.
Which of these statements about basophils is NOT true?


1. They promote inflammation.
2. They are cytoplasmic granules.
3. They are abundant.
4. They release histamine.
femoral arteries
Which of these arteries does NOT branch directly from the aorta?


1. left coronary artery
2. left carotid artery
3. femoral arteries
4. right coronary artery
hemoglobin
The most abundant protein in blood is __________.

1. hemoglobin
2. albumin
3. fibrinogen
4. immunoglobulin
All of these are formed elements of blood
The formed elements of blood consist of _________.

1. red blood cells
2. platelets
3. white blood cells
4. All of these are formed elements of blood
conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
The common pathway in coagulation ends with __________.


1. conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
2. release of PF-3
3. positive feedback of thrombin formation
4. adhesion of platelets to a damaged vessel wall
kidney
Which organ produces renin and erythropoietin to help maintain normal blood pressure and hematocrit?


1. brain
2. kidney
3. liver
4. adrenal
monocyte
The agranular leukocyte (agranulocyte) that is capable of phagocytosis is the __________.

1. neutrophil
2. monocyte
3. lymphocyte
4. eosinophil
visceral pericardium
The epicardium is also known as the __________.

1. visceral pericardium
2. myocardium
3. endocardium
4. parietal pericardium
blood pressure
Which of these is NOT needed to determine cardiac output?


1. heart rate
2. end systolic volume
3. end diastolic volume
4. blood pressure
oxygenated; left
The pulmonary veins carry __________ blood to the __________ atrium.


1. deoxygenated; left
2. deoxygenated; right
3. oxygenated; left
4. oxygenated; right
clots slowly dissolve
During fibrinolysis __________.

1. clots slowly dissolve
2. fibrinogen is activated
3. damaged tissue is pulled together
4. emboli form
elastic
Arteries have a tissue in their middle and internal vessel walls that veins lack, called __________ tissue.


1. elastic
2. smooth muscle
3. endothelial
4. adventitial
neutrophils
The white blood cell type that most rapidly increases in number after a bacterial infection is the __________.

1. lymphocytes
2. eosinophils
3. neutrophils
4. monocytes
The pH is slightly acidic
EXCEPT for __________, the following statements about blood are true.

1. It contains about 55% plasma.
2. The viscosity is three to five times greater than water.
3. It contains dissolved gases.
4. The pH is slightly acidic.
B positive
A person with a type A positive blood type can safely receive blood from all of these donors EXCEPT __________.


1. B positive
2. O positive
3. A negative
4. A positive
protein
EXCEPT for the amount of __________, plasma and interstitial fluid differ little in composition.

1. protein
2. glucose
3. sodium ion
4. water
Both statements are true.
The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood in the adult circulation; the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood in the fetal circulation. Are these two statements true or false?


1. The first statement is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first statement is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.
blood colloid osmotic pressure
Peripheral resistance depends on ALL of the following factors EXCEPT __________.

1. blood viscosity
2. blood vessel diameter
3. blood vessel length
4. blood colloid osmotic pressure
red blood cells
Reticulocyte is a stage in the development of __________.


1. lymphocytes
2. megakaryocytes
3. red blood cells
4. neutrophils
increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton
As the heart ages, which of these changes is NOT normally seen?

1. decreased cardiac output
2. coronary arteriosclerosis
3. decreased ejection fraction
4. increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton
120 days
Red blood cells (RBCs) are removed from the circulation after about __________.

1. 1 year
2. 1 day
3. 120 days
4. 30 days
both the right vagus and sympathetic Nerves
Heart rate is controlled by __________.

1. the phrenic nerves
2. both the right vagus and sympathetic nerves
3. sympathetic nerves in the cardiac plexus
4. the right vagus nerve