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Science Vocab- Chapters 17 +19

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Atom
the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of the element
Nucleus
positively charged center of an atom the contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by a cloud of electrons
Proton
particle inside of an atom that has a charge of 1+
Neutron
neutral particle inside the nucleus of an atom
Electron
particle surrounding the center of an atom that has a charge of 1-
Electron cloud
area around the nucleus of an atom where the atom's electrons are most likely to be found
Atomic number
number of protons in an atom's nucleus
Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
unit of measurement for atomic particles
Mass Number
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
Isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Average Atomic Mass
weighted-average mass of the mixture of an element's isotopes
Periodic Table
organized list of all known elements that are arranged by increasing atomic number and by changes in chemical and physical properties
Group
vertical column in the periodic table
Period
horizontal row in the periodic table
Metal
element that typically is a hard, shiny solid, is malleable, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity
Malleable
able to be rolled of hammered into thin sheets
Ductile
able to be drawn into wires
Conductor
material in which electrons can move easily
Radioactive (Element)
element whose nucleus breaks down and emits particles and energy
Transition metal
metals in Groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table
Lanthanide
first row of inner transition metals listed below the periodic table that includes a series of elements with atomic numbers of 58 to 71
Actinide
second row of inner transition metals listed below the periodic table that includes a series of elements with atomic numbers of 90 to 103
Nonmetal
element that usually is a has or brittle solid at room temperature, is not malleable or ductile, is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, and typically is not shiny
Diatomic
consists of two atoms of the same element
Halogen
"salt former"; has seven electrons in the outer energy level
Noble gas
have eight electrons in the outer energy level; not very reactive
Metalloid
element that shares some properties with metals and some with nonmetals
Allotrope
different form of the same element having different molecular structures
Semiconductor
materials having conductivity properties between metals (good conductors) and nonmetals (insulators) and having controllable conductivity parameters