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What are the components of an information system?

data, people, processes, and a combination of hardware, software, and communications technology

What is the difference between data and information?

Data represent raw facts and figures, while information represents the meaningful interpretation of data

St. Mary's Hospital is looking for an IS that manages the day-to-day operations of the facility, such as admissions, discharges, and transfers. What type of system are they looking for?


word processing, spreadsheets, DBMS (database management systems)

Productivity Software

Software that supports, enhances, or expands existing programs in a computer system, such as virus checking, data recovery, backup, and data compression

Utility Program

Master programs, called the supervisor, that manage basic operations of the computer

Operating System

high-level IT used in developing machines that imitate human qualities, such as learning and reasoning

Artificial Intelligence

Which of the following would be considered an IS's secondary storage device?

manetic tape, flopy disk, cd-rom

Webster Medical Center is installing a computerized order entry system (CPOE). Currently we are training the staff and testing the system. We must be in the:

implementation phase

Use case and sequence diagrams/tables are an example of a

unified modeling language

A method(s) used to identify requirements for a proposed information system is/are:

develop a prototype, conduct a jad, conduct a site visit

You are developing a list of functions that the users need from a release of information system. You are also analyzing the current system to see what opportunities there are to improve the system. Which stage of the SDLC are you in?

Planning and Analysis

All the following statements regarding management of information technology are true EXCEPT

Most physicians are very receptive to changes in technology that affect the way they practice medicine.

Your new release of information system has part of the computing on the workstation and part on the file server. What type of technology is being used?


The local college database keeps track of students seen in the student health clinic. If you were designing the database table for the clinic, which of the following would best ensure that each row in the database table is unique?

medical record number


This indicates it is a primary key in another table.

Our facility operates in a network environment where a common database is shared among several end-user workstations. Where is this database most likely stored?

server computer

What is the basic purpose of a database?

store and retrieve data

The first computer systems used in healthcare were used primarily to perform

payroll and patient accounting

In hospitals, automated systems for registering patients and tracking their encounters are commonly known as what kind of system?


Which of the following systems is designed primarily to support patient care by providing healthcare professionals access to timely, complete, and relevant information for patient care purposes?

Clinical information system

Which of the following best describes a data warehouse?

A large storage of data used for strategic decision support.

The physician records his findings while still in the patient's room. This is called:

POC documentation


peer review, research, quality improvement

The concept of systems integration refers to the healthcare organization's ability to

Combine information from any system within the organization.

A management information system is different from a strategic decision support system in that it produces reports for

operational and tactical decision making

Which of the following information systems is used for collecting, verifying, and reporting test results?

Laboratory information system

A number of healthcare organizations share information. These organizations have disparate systems. This describes a(n):


unique identifier. in healthcare we use a med record number as a primary key when locating a patinet

primary key

a column of one table that corresponds to a primary key in another table. provide the ability to join assorted data elements together to create a report or screen

foreign key

a computer architecture in which multiple computers (clients) are connected to tother computers (servers) that store and distribute lare amounts of shared data



Graphical user interface GUI

a system of connections of private internet networks outside an organizations firewall that uss internet tech to enable collaborative applications among enterprises


a privae informaion newiork that is similar o he inerne and whose servers are locaed inside a firewall or security barrier so tha the general public cannot gain access to informationhoused within the network


a model used to represent the ongoing process of developing or purchasing information systems

systems development life cycle sdlc

a descriptive list of the data elements to be collected in an information system or database whose purpose is to ensure consistency to terminology

data dictionary

a written communication often sent to a comprehensive list of vendors during the design phase of the systems development life cycle to ask for general product information

Request for information RFI

a type of business correspondence asking for very specific product and contract information that is often sent to a narrow list of vendors that have been preselected after a review of requests for information during the design phase of the systems development life cycle

RFP request for proposal

an automated system that uses computer hardware and software to record manipulate store recover and disseminate data that is a system that receives and processes input and provides output often used interchangeably with information technology

information systems

a set of related policies and procedures that are performed step by step to accomplish a business related function

business process

data entered into a hospital system for example the patients knowledge of his or her condition the admitting clerks knowledge of the admission process and the computer with its admitting template are all inputs for the hospitls admitting sytem


the outcomes of inputs into a system for example the output of the admitting process is the patinets admission to the hospital


a systematic series of actions taken to create a product or service


the permanent storage of data and programs on disks or tapes

secondary storage

any hardware device connected to a computer for example a keyboard mouse, or printer


the platform on which all applications reside and function

sytem software

software designed to assist a user in perorming either a single task or multiple relate tasks

application software

the machines and media used in an information system


processes that are affected by what is going on around them and must adjust as the environment changes

operating system

a software program that supports enhances or expnds existing programs in a computer system such as virus checking data recovery backup and data compression

utility program

binary codes made up of zeroes and ones that computers use directly to represent precise storage locations and operations

machine language

a type of computer software used for wordprocessing spread sheet and database management applications

productivity software

a type of applications software that performs specialized niche functions such as encoding or drawing and painting

specialty software

a systems analysis technique used to document a software project from a users perspective

use case diagram

a sytems analysis tool for documenting the interaction between an actor and the information system

sequence diagram

a common data modeling notation used in conjuction with object oriented database design

unified modeling language

an organized collection of data, text, references, or pictures in a standardized format, typically stored in a computer system for multiple applications


computer software that enables the used to create, modify, delete and view the data in a database

database management system DBMS

a type of database that stores data in predefines tables made up of rows and columns

relational database

a fourth generation computer language that includes both ddl and dml components and is used to create and manipulate relational databases

structured query language

a basic fact within a table, such as last name first name and date of birth


an explanatory notation that uniquely identifies each row in a database table

key field

a set of columns or a collection of related data items in a tablea database that makes it possible to access data from multiple databases and combine the results into a single query and reporting interface

row recorddata warehouse

limits placed on the data that may be entered into a database

integrity constraints

a database that makes it possible to access data from multiple databased and combine the results into a single qury and reporting interface

data warehouse

the process of extracting information from a database and then quantifying and filtering descrete structured data

data mining

a plan in which helath information is shared among providers


voice and data communications


a type of information tech that connects different computers and computer systems so that they can share information


your organization has decided not to purchase an info system specifically for them but instead has chosen an application service provider ASP. Which of teh ollowing was most likely not the reason they chose this path

improved control

in the RFP you have asked for info regarding the amount of time that a vendor has been in business and the number of installations of the product under strong consideration. If you want to review this info you would go to which section of the RFP

Vendor Information

view a vendors product and provide a follow up visit to see a product in action


request organizational profile vendor information functional specifications operational rquirements technical requirements applicaton support licensing and contractual details and eval criteria


request info regarding a companys background market info installed base and list of clients

due dilience

a general request to gain additional info on a prouct and an opportunity to perhaps prescreen teh product and or vendor


a preliminary step prior to issuing a formal RFP, which allows a facility to narrow down the field of potential vendors for procurement of a new hospital wide computer system would e to

issue a request for info to potential vendors

a __________________- is the integration of several elements of a business process to effect a specific outcome

information system

an info system must

receive input, process the input and provide output

an IS uses _____ to capture the data and convert to a language the computer understands


the computer uses ______ to apply instructions in order to index, store, calculate, and compare data


an is consists of

work processes and a
combination of harddware, software and communication technology

raw facts that provide input to the IS, represent basic facts and observations about people processes measurements and conditions


factual data used for a specific purpose


information understanding experiences, allows an individual to make an informed decision


policies and procedures the user must follow in order to complete a task


makes teh three elements work

communication technology


enter data

calculate/compare data


display print a report to the data


save data


id and manage problems with data processing procedures


a device that allows five basic functions,


peripherals include


instructions that assisit the computer in performing tasks


two kinds of software

system and application

four phases of a systme development life cycle

planning and analysis
maintenance and evaluation

most time consuming of SDLC and most important

planning and analysis

q's asked during planning and analysis

reviewing existing docs forms and databases
Researching and making site visits to determine users needs
Creating a prototype or model
Creating use case and sequence diagrams with help of Unified modeling language

answers how in SDLC and combines all the individual use cases into a model or blueprint


test time of SDLC


answer q's on any new issues teh users come across

maintenance and eval

phase of SDLC called "getting ready" eval readiness for new or improved it


four phases of managing information tech


shopping phase of managing info tech


jump on board phase of managing info tech


scoring phase of managing info tech


an organized collection of data


data that can be stored in a database inclde

real numbers
strings(characters of data

three basic types of datavases

object oriented
object relational

most common databases in health care


uses columns and rows
access is limited to users who need to know

relational databases

a unique identifier.medical record number

primary key

a column of one table that corresponds to a primary key in another talbe

foreign key

database management systems are catagorized as either

personal or
server based

database that makes it possible to access data from multiple databases and combine the esults inot one query and reporting interface

clinical data warehouse

purpose of a network

to allow users to share resources easily and efficiently

to communicate via a network you must have our components


linked in a way to share info and resources


network computers play one of two roles

client (access shared resources)
Servers (share resources


small area
client server peer to peer or hybrin
intranet is a common lan


large geo area
usually 2 plus lans connected
internet is an example

how computer speak to each other, rules that gover how the data is transmitted form one place to another


three distinct phases of protocol

connection setup
data transfer
connection release

in the 60's the primary functions of computers wre

payroll and patinet accounting areas

in the 70's the creation of

turnkey sytems emerged

in the 80 's ______ took hold

clinical systems

1991 the ____ addressed the critical problems with patinet paper records


sharing pateint information from organization to organization

health info exchange

HIE's benefit organizations by

cost savings
improved workflow
improved quality of care
improved access to information
improved communication

challenges of HIE's

failure to implement
lack of standards
different hardware and software
protecting patient information

health information systems fall into three categ

clinical information sytems
administrative info systems (managment info systems)
Management support systems

category includes electronic medical records electronic health records and computer based patinet records and covers aspects of a patinets health record

clinical information systems

`his that is used for daily management ADT, Financial, human resources, materials management, facilities management

administrative (managemnt info)

info system that reports are the life blood of an organ daily operatons, MIS, Strategic decision support systems, Executive information

Management support systems

consolidated database maintained separately from the organizations operating system data reffered to as a snapshot in time used for decision support

data warehouse

subset of a data warehouse, narrow in focus

data mart

process not a thing,

data mining

techniques used in data mining

decision trees
genetic algorithms
neural networks
predictive models
rule indction
fuzzy logic

a decision support tool

olap online analytical processing

the process of identifying and assigning priortities to the various upgrades and changes that might be made in an organizations information system

strategic information system planning

one of the most important aspects of information resource management is

ensuring the data that we collect is of high quality

we must manage our quality inormation in a way that meets thier nees information may be

patinet speciic
expert knowledge based

senior level exectutives that lead the organization forward. involved in strategic planning related to information systems and oversee the irm


responsible for privacy in general and patient privacy in particular


responsible for development implementation and envorcement of the HCO's security policies


physicians. position is key to a successful information system adoption and acceptance the champion


technical department responsible for data administration neetwork security database managemtn systems inegration


a system that is hosted by a third party service company

ASP application service provider

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