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190 terms

Health information systems Midterm

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What are the components of an information system?
data, people, processes, and a combination of hardware, software, and communications technology
What is the difference between data and information?
Data represent raw facts and figures, while information represents the meaningful interpretation of data
St. Mary's Hospital is looking for an IS that manages the day-to-day operations of the facility, such as admissions, discharges, and transfers. What type of system are they looking for?
TPS
word processing, spreadsheets, DBMS (database management systems)
Productivity Software
Software that supports, enhances, or expands existing programs in a computer system, such as virus checking, data recovery, backup, and data compression
Utility Program
Master programs, called the supervisor, that manage basic operations of the computer
Operating System
high-level IT used in developing machines that imitate human qualities, such as learning and reasoning
Artificial Intelligence
Which of the following would be considered an IS's secondary storage device?
manetic tape, flopy disk, cd-rom
Webster Medical Center is installing a computerized order entry system (CPOE). Currently we are training the staff and testing the system. We must be in the:
implementation phase
Use case and sequence diagrams/tables are an example of a
unified modeling language
A method(s) used to identify requirements for a proposed information system is/are:
develop a prototype, conduct a jad, conduct a site visit
You are developing a list of functions that the users need from a release of information system. You are also analyzing the current system to see what opportunities there are to improve the system. Which stage of the SDLC are you in?
Planning and Analysis
All the following statements regarding management of information technology are true EXCEPT
Most physicians are very receptive to changes in technology that affect the way they practice medicine.
Your new release of information system has part of the computing on the workstation and part on the file server. What type of technology is being used?
client-server
The local college database keeps track of students seen in the student health clinic. If you were designing the database table for the clinic, which of the following would best ensure that each row in the database table is unique?
medical record number
...
This indicates it is a primary key in another table.
Our facility operates in a network environment where a common database is shared among several end-user workstations. Where is this database most likely stored?
server computer
What is the basic purpose of a database?
store and retrieve data
The first computer systems used in healthcare were used primarily to perform
payroll and patient accounting
In hospitals, automated systems for registering patients and tracking their encounters are commonly known as what kind of system?
R-ADT
Which of the following systems is designed primarily to support patient care by providing healthcare professionals access to timely, complete, and relevant information for patient care purposes?
Clinical information system
Which of the following best describes a data warehouse?
A large storage of data used for strategic decision support.
The physician records his findings while still in the patient's room. This is called:
POC documentation
...
peer review, research, quality improvement
The concept of systems integration refers to the healthcare organization's ability to
Combine information from any system within the organization.
A management information system is different from a strategic decision support system in that it produces reports for
operational and tactical decision making
Which of the following information systems is used for collecting, verifying, and reporting test results?
Laboratory information system
A number of healthcare organizations share information. These organizations have disparate systems. This describes a(n):
HIE
unique identifier. in healthcare we use a med record number as a primary key when locating a patinet
primary key
a column of one table that corresponds to a primary key in another table. provide the ability to join assorted data elements together to create a report or screen
foreign key
a computer architecture in which multiple computers (clients) are connected to tother computers (servers) that store and distribute lare amounts of shared data
client/server
...
Graphical user interface GUI
a system of connections of private internet networks outside an organizations firewall that uss internet tech to enable collaborative applications among enterprises
extranet
a privae informaion newiork that is similar o he inerne and whose servers are locaed inside a firewall or security barrier so tha the general public cannot gain access to informationhoused within the network
intranet
a model used to represent the ongoing process of developing or purchasing information systems
systems development life cycle sdlc
a descriptive list of the data elements to be collected in an information system or database whose purpose is to ensure consistency to terminology
data dictionary
...
data
a written communication often sent to a comprehensive list of vendors during the design phase of the systems development life cycle to ask for general product information
Request for information RFI
a type of business correspondence asking for very specific product and contract information that is often sent to a narrow list of vendors that have been preselected after a review of requests for information during the design phase of the systems development life cycle
RFP request for proposal
an automated system that uses computer hardware and software to record manipulate store recover and disseminate data that is a system that receives and processes input and provides output often used interchangeably with information technology
information systems
a set of related policies and procedures that are performed step by step to accomplish a business related function
business process
data entered into a hospital system for example the patients knowledge of his or her condition the admitting clerks knowledge of the admission process and the computer with its admitting template are all inputs for the hospitls admitting sytem
inputs
the outcomes of inputs into a system for example the output of the admitting process is the patinets admission to the hospital
outputs
a systematic series of actions taken to create a product or service
process
the permanent storage of data and programs on disks or tapes
secondary storage
any hardware device connected to a computer for example a keyboard mouse, or printer
peripheral
the platform on which all applications reside and function
sytem software
software designed to assist a user in perorming either a single task or multiple relate tasks
application software
the machines and media used in an information system
hardware
processes that are affected by what is going on around them and must adjust as the environment changes
operating system
a software program that supports enhances or expnds existing programs in a computer system such as virus checking data recovery backup and data compression
utility program
binary codes made up of zeroes and ones that computers use directly to represent precise storage locations and operations
machine language
a type of computer software used for wordprocessing spread sheet and database management applications
productivity software
a type of applications software that performs specialized niche functions such as encoding or drawing and painting
specialty software
a systems analysis technique used to document a software project from a users perspective
use case diagram
a sytems analysis tool for documenting the interaction between an actor and the information system
sequence diagram
a common data modeling notation used in conjuction with object oriented database design
unified modeling language
an organized collection of data, text, references, or pictures in a standardized format, typically stored in a computer system for multiple applications
database
computer software that enables the used to create, modify, delete and view the data in a database
database management system DBMS
a type of database that stores data in predefines tables made up of rows and columns
relational database
a fourth generation computer language that includes both ddl and dml components and is used to create and manipulate relational databases
structured query language
a basic fact within a table, such as last name first name and date of birth
column/field
an explanatory notation that uniquely identifies each row in a database table
key field
a set of columns or a collection of related data items in a tablea database that makes it possible to access data from multiple databases and combine the results into a single query and reporting interface
row recorddata warehouse
limits placed on the data that may be entered into a database
integrity constraints
a database that makes it possible to access data from multiple databased and combine the results into a single qury and reporting interface
data warehouse
the process of extracting information from a database and then quantifying and filtering descrete structured data
data mining
a plan in which helath information is shared among providers
hie
voice and data communications
telecommunications
a type of information tech that connects different computers and computer systems so that they can share information
...
your organization has decided not to purchase an info system specifically for them but instead has chosen an application service provider ASP. Which of teh ollowing was most likely not the reason they chose this path
improved control
in the RFP you have asked for info regarding the amount of time that a vendor has been in business and the number of installations of the product under strong consideration. If you want to review this info you would go to which section of the RFP
Vendor Information
view a vendors product and provide a follow up visit to see a product in action
demo
request organizational profile vendor information functional specifications operational rquirements technical requirements applicaton support licensing and contractual details and eval criteria
RFP
request info regarding a companys background market info installed base and list of clients
due dilience
a general request to gain additional info on a prouct and an opportunity to perhaps prescreen teh product and or vendor
RFI
a preliminary step prior to issuing a formal RFP, which allows a facility to narrow down the field of potential vendors for procurement of a new hospital wide computer system would e to
issue a request for info to potential vendors
a __________________- is the integration of several elements of a business process to effect a specific outcome
information system
an info system must
receive input, process the input and provide output
an IS uses _____ to capture the data and convert to a language the computer understands
hardware
the computer uses ______ to apply instructions in order to index, store, calculate, and compare data
software
an is consists of
data
people
work processes and a
combination of harddware, software and communication technology
raw facts that provide input to the IS, represent basic facts and observations about people processes measurements and conditions
Data
factual data used for a specific purpose
information
information understanding experiences, allows an individual to make an informed decision
knowledge
policies and procedures the user must follow in order to complete a task
processes
makes teh three elements work
communication technology
input
enter data
calculate/compare data
processing
display print a report to the data
output
save data
storage
id and manage problems with data processing procedures
controlling
a device that allows five basic functions,
peripherals
peripherals include
input
output
storage
communication
instructions that assisit the computer in performing tasks
software
two kinds of software
system and application
four phases of a systme development life cycle
planning and analysis
Design
inplementation
maintenance and evaluation
most time consuming of SDLC and most important
planning and analysis
q's asked during planning and analysis
reviewing existing docs forms and databases
Researching and making site visits to determine users needs
Creating a prototype or model
Creating use case and sequence diagrams with help of Unified modeling language
answers how in SDLC and combines all the individual use cases into a model or blueprint
design
test time of SDLC
implementation
answer q's on any new issues teh users come across
maintenance and eval
phase of SDLC called "getting ready" eval readiness for new or improved it
planning
four phases of managing information tech
planning
aquisition
implementation
evaluation
shopping phase of managing info tech
aquisition
jump on board phase of managing info tech
implementation
scoring phase of managing info tech
evaluation
an organized collection of data
database
data that can be stored in a database inclde
currency
real numbers
integers
strings(characters of data
three basic types of datavases
relational
object oriented
object relational
most common databases in health care
relational
uses columns and rows
sql
access is limited to users who need to know
relational databases
a unique identifier.medical record number
primary key
a column of one table that corresponds to a primary key in another talbe
foreign key
database management systems are catagorized as either
personal or
server based
database that makes it possible to access data from multiple databases and combine the esults inot one query and reporting interface
clinical data warehouse
purpose of a network
to allow users to share resources easily and efficiently
to communicate via a network you must have our components
transmitter
reciever
medium
data
linked in a way to share info and resources
networked
network computers play one of two roles
client (access shared resources)
Servers (share resources
lan
small area
client server peer to peer or hybrin
intranet is a common lan
wan
large geo area
usually 2 plus lans connected
internet is an example
how computer speak to each other, rules that gover how the data is transmitted form one place to another
protocol
three distinct phases of protocol
connection setup
data transfer
connection release
in the 60's the primary functions of computers wre
payroll and patinet accounting areas
in the 70's the creation of
turnkey sytems emerged
in the 80 's ______ took hold
clinical systems
1991 the ____ addressed the critical problems with patinet paper records
IOM
sharing pateint information from organization to organization
health info exchange
HIE's benefit organizations by
cost savings
improved workflow
improved quality of care
improved access to information
improved communication
challenges of HIE's
failure to implement
lack of standards
different hardware and software
protecting patient information
health information systems fall into three categ
clinical information sytems
administrative info systems (managment info systems)
Management support systems
category includes electronic medical records electronic health records and computer based patinet records and covers aspects of a patinets health record
clinical information systems
`his that is used for daily management ADT, Financial, human resources, materials management, facilities management
administrative (managemnt info)
info system that reports are the life blood of an organ daily operatons, MIS, Strategic decision support systems, Executive information
Management support systems
consolidated database maintained separately from the organizations operating system data reffered to as a snapshot in time used for decision support
data warehouse
subset of a data warehouse, narrow in focus
data mart
process not a thing,
data mining
techniques used in data mining
decision trees
genetic algorithms
neural networks
predictive models
rule indction
fuzzy logic
a decision support tool
olap online analytical processing
the process of identifying and assigning priortities to the various upgrades and changes that might be made in an organizations information system
strategic information system planning
one of the most important aspects of information resource management is
ensuring the data that we collect is of high quality
we must manage our quality inormation in a way that meets thier nees information may be
patinet speciic
aggregate
expert knowledge based
comparative
senior level exectutives that lead the organization forward. involved in strategic planning related to information systems and oversee the irm
CIO
responsible for privacy in general and patient privacy in particular
CPO
responsible for development implementation and envorcement of the HCO's security policies
CISO
physicians. position is key to a successful information system adoption and acceptance the champion
CMIO
technical department responsible for data administration neetwork security database managemtn systems inegration
ISD
a system that is hosted by a third party service company
ASP application service provider
systems that work together, word excel powerpoint
integrated system
systems that are linked
interfaced system
project management major participants should include
steering commite led by CIO
project team
project manager
user task force
vendor rep
consultant
project identification
id the purpose of the system
id how it links to the business plan
id goals and scope
refers to what is and what isn't to be included in the project
scope
request for information from a vendor
RFI
a more detailed formal documanet that provides the vendor with all the information needed to propose whether an is meets the healthcare facilitys needs for an IS
RFP
an RFI will ask the vendor
to provide basic info about their products
to provide info on how their product would mee our requirements
the RFP generally includes teh following
Letter of introduction
proposal overview
enterprise profile
conditions of response
functional specifications
technical specifications
installation and training requirements
vendor profile
system costs and finiancing arrangements
contractual arrangements
will define the organization and its demographic data statistics such as bed count occupancy rate and number of admissoins
nterprise profile
contains info about what format teh vendor should sue, the date and time the response is to be submited, detailed instructions for completing each section of the proposal and teh name and tele number of teh contact person
conditions of response
heart of teh RFP
functional specifications
describes hardware software interfaces processing environments and communications
tech specifications
help physicians make important decisions about the care of patinets
decision support system
manage budgets create work schedules perform employee evaluations
Management information systems
used to process data created and used by business operations they are referred to as
operation support systems
an example of an operations support system. patient admissions employee time cared and supply purchases are examples of transactions taht take place in a halthcare facility
transaction processing system
sometimes referred to as an enterprise resource planning erp system is a large is that manages data for an entire healthcare business
enterprise wide system
documents the functions of a system from the users point of view
use case diagram
a systems analysis tool for documenting the interaction between an actor and teh information system
sequence diagram
a discliplines effort to produce fundamental decisions that shape and guide what an organizatin is what it does and why it does it
stategic planning
stores data in predefined tables that contain rows and columns similar to a spread sheet
realational database
stores objects of data
object oriented database
combines the best of the relational and object oriented databases
object relational database
basic fact such as last name first name
column/field
set of columns or a collection of related data items
row/record
uniqely id's each row in a table
uelkey field
health information exchanges for sharing clinical and administrative information acrossorganizational boundries for the purpose of improving paitnet care and managing costs
RHIo regional health informaitno organizations
compurter system for registering patients and tracking their encounters that require multiple points for data input
admission discharge transfer systems or registraiton admission discharge transer systems
used to address and ensure delivery of data
protocol
first generation of programming languages consists of ones and zeros
machine languages
second generation _________languages uses a standart set of abbreviations to replace some of the ones and zeros of machine languages.
assembly languages
_______ languages use words and arithmetic phrases to construct programs examples include COBOL, and BASIC
high level
fourth generation of programming languages include report generators query languages data managemnt languages and application generators
very high level languages
allow users to speak in a more converasational way with the computer and are part of teh expanding field of artificial intelligence
natural languages
a fourth generation computer language that includes both ddl and dml components and is used to create and manipulate relational databases
Structured query language SQL
examples of forth generation language
SQL, report builder, and SPPS
a data access architecture that allows the user to retrieve spcific information from a large volume of daa
online analytical processing OLAP
the use of _________ turns the data warehouse into a decision support tool because it can analyze large amounts of data quickly by drilling down inot the data.
OLAP
a type of decision support that uses messages to notify the user of a problem as well as for reminders. examples: meds that contriaindicated
alerts
a standards development organization. described a standard that describes the funcitons expected of an EHR called teh
HL7 HL7 EHR unctional model