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PSYCH 281 EXAM 2 Ch 8 Motivation
Terms in this set (20)
What is motivation
A force that drives people to behave in certain ways
NOT a personal trait
Is about understanding what a person is motivated by, why, and how much
Why is motivation important?
Motivation gives drive to employee's
Energizes: Creates force that results in some level of effort
Directs: Focuses efforts towards certain objectives
Sustains: Maintains effort over a period of time
Formula for motivation
(Ability x Motivation ) - situational constraints = behavior > performance
3 Main Theories of motivation
2: Cognitive Choice Theories/ Person as Judge Metaphor ''
3: Self Regulation Theories/ Person as Intentional '''
Reinforcement Theory '
Reinforcement increase the likelihood of repeating
Punishment removing positive factors decreases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated
Positive reinforcement= add favorable consequences to increase behavior
Positive punishment= add unfavorable consequences to decrease behavior
Negative reinforcement= remove unfavorable consequences to increase behavior
Negative punishment= remove favorable consequences to decrease behavior.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs '
love and belonging
safety and security
Aldefer's ERG Theory '
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory '
Job Characteristics Theory '
Skill variety: cross-training/ development
Task Identity: Information
Task significance: social programs
Feedback: 360 degree feedback
Knowledge of Results
Quality of Work
Job Characteristics Theory "JCT" needs
need for power: control over other persons
need for achievement: personal goals, sales job
need for affiliation: help others, interpersonal relationship
Equity Theory ''
Individuals compare ratios of inputs and outcomes with others
Change inputs- alter effort
Change outcomes- ask for a raise/ more recognition
Alter perceptions- convince self that ratio is equitable
Change comparison other
Expectancy/ VIE Theory ''
Valence: how much do you value the reward
Instrumentality: it does not matter how hard i work i will still not get reward
Expectancy: will increasing my effort get me the reward
Goal Setting theory '''
Motivation is enhanced when employees are committed to specific, difficult goals, and when feedbackabout progress toward goals is provided
Goals effect behavior in 4 ways
Direct attention to a particular task
Mobilize on-task effort
Enable us to persist
Facilitate strategies that can be used at a higher cognitive level to move toward goal attainment
Control Theory '''
People compare performance feedback against standard feedback. If a discrepancy exists, we seek to reduce it; to match the feedback and goal/standard.
Social Cognitive Theory '''
Self-observation- Attention paid to specific behaviors
Self-evaluation- Attention paid to feedback
Self-reactions- Internal response to Self-Evaluation
Self-efficiency Expectations - beliefs in capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, and courses of action needed to exercise control over life events
Applications for increasing motivation
Organizational Behavioral Management
Management by Objectives
Organizational Behavioral Management
A - Antecedents: backgrounds of behavior - equipment needed
B - behavior itself
C - Consequences of behavior - rewards
1) Target specific behaviors that must be changed
2) Measure targeted behaviors to establish a baseline
3) Examine contingencies, which explain links between
behaviors & rewards or punishments
4) Intervention implemented links new rewards to behaviors
5) Evaluate the success of the intervention
Management by Objectives: MBO
Process of setting goals and basing performance appraisal on the attainment of those goals in a continuous process
Strengthening key motivating variables of a job
Skill Variety- cross-training/ development
Task Identity - information
Task significance - social programs
Autonomy - flextime & telecommuting
Feedback - 360-feedback
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Bundle: A Concise Introduction To Logic Aplia 1 Term Printed Access Card
Patrick J. Hurley
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