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thoracic aorta, thoracic duct, esophagus

The heart lies anterior to


The heart lies posterior to


The heart lies superior to

aortic arch

The heart lies inferior to


Outer surface of heart, coronary vessels


"cardiac muscle", thickness is pressure related, effects autonomic nervous system


Inner surface of heart, continuous with endothelium, cusps of valves


Container for heart

great vessels

Superior edge of pericardium


inferior edge of pericardium

pulmonary trunk, ascending aorta, atrial auricles, ventricles, atrio-ventricular sulcus, anterior inter-ventricular groove

Anterior surface of heart

superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary veins, left atrium, atrio-ventricular sulcus

Posterior surface of heart

ventricles, inferior vena cava

Inferior surface of heart

superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus

Sources of blood for right atrium

tricuspid valve

Right atrium empties through

tricuspid valve

Source of blood for right ventricle

pulmonic valve

right ventricle empties into

3 cusps

Pulmonary valve anatomy

pulmonary veins

Left atrium source

mitral valve

Left atrium empties through

2 cusps

mitral valve anatomy

mitral valve

Source of blood for left ventricle

aortic valve

Left ventricle ejects into

3 cusps

Aortic valve anatomy


cardiac cells with fastest rate of spontaneous activity


cell to cell transmission

autonomic nervous input, hormonal input

Cardiac cells are influenced

increase rate, increase strength of contraction

Sympathetic nervous system effect on heart

wall of right atrium

sino atrial node location


sino atrial node rhythm

specialized cardiac muscle cells for transmissions

Purkinje cells

slow heart rate

Parasympathetic nervous system effect on heart

depolarization of Atriums

P wave

depolarization of ventricles

QRS wave

polarization of ventricles

T wave

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