APUSH American Pageant Chapter 13
Terms in this set (57)
(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
John C. Calhoun
In 1828, he lead the fight against protective tariffs which hurt the south economically. Created the doctrine of nullification which said that a state could decide if a law was constitutional. This situation became known as the Nullification Crisis.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." (responsible for the Missouri Compromise). Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Martin Van Buren
(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.
was Sec. of Treasury under James Monroe Presidency; and a canidate for Presidency in 1824 he represented the south in this election
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly his work.
Senator of Massachusetts; famous American politician & orator; advocated renewal & opposed the financial policy of Jackson; many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System; later pushed for a strong union.
As President of the Second Bank of the United States, this man occupied a position of power and responsibility that propelled him to the forefront of Jacksonian politics in the 1830s. He, along with others who regarded the bank as a necessity, realized the threat posed by the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828.
Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish
He led the militia assault upon Tecumseh's village at Tippecanoe Creek in October 1811. In 1840, he became the first Whig President, winning the election with a "log cabin" and "hard cider" appeal to the common people. The 68-year-old caught a cold at his inauguration and died after serving only one month in office.
Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto; later elected president of the Republic of Texas
(1841-1845) His opinions on all the important issues had been forcefully stated, and he had only been chosen to balance the Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the constitution, he opposed protective tariffs, a national bank and internal improvements at national expense.
Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war.
Illinois-Wisconsin area Sauk leader who was defeated by American regulars and militia in 1832
former lawyer turned solider. Was given a rank of Lieutenant Cornel in the Texas army. Got command of the Alamo after Neill left for personal reasons. Wrote a famous letter asking for help from the siege but pledging to stand and fight to the death defending the Alamo.
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
the presidential candidate backed by the home state at the party's nominating convention
Jacksonian Democracy is named as such because it benefited this group
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
rotation in office
Jackson's system of periodically replacing officeholders to allow ordinary citizens to play a more prominent role in government
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
A candidate who fails to win a majority of popular votes and yet wins the Presidency
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
First founded in New York, it gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential Masonic order, a secret society. These people opposed Andrew Jackson, a ____, and drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants.
Revolution of 1828
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from quincy adams to jackson
An amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1804, that specifies the separate election of the president and vice president by the electoral college.
Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy.
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
South Carolina Exposition
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature, written by John C. Calhoun. It spoke against the "Tariff of Abominations," and proposed nullification of the tariff. Calhoun wished to use nullification to prevent secession, yet address the grievances of sectionalist Southerners. These sectionalist ideas helped lead to the Civil War.
Tariff of 1832
A tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act
Issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in this. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Term the North used to describe the Slaveholding South and its "schemes" to gain more slave-land, the northerners' idea of the south. The idea had to do with Texas joining the union. People from the north thought the southern was involved in a conspiracy to bring new slave states to America. This was what the north used to refer to the south's system of slavery.
Tariff of 1833
This was a compromise bill. It would gradually reduce the tariff of 1832 by 10% over an 8 year period. It would be a 20-25% tax on dutiable goods. Henry Clay wrote the bill. It ended the nullification crisis when South Carolina accepted the compromise.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
1833 - This authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. This act of the same name was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified this.
They lived in Florida as runaways from other tribes. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west. They were tricked into a truce where their chief Osceola was captured. Most were moved to Oklahoma while others remained hidden in the everglades.
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the government could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
Bank of the United States
The "moneyed monster" that Clay tried to preserve and that Jackson killed with his veto in 1832
Nickname for Texas after it won independence from Mexico in 1836
Martin Van Buren passed the "Divorce Bill" in 1840 which created this that took the government's funds out of the pet banks that Jackson created and put them in vaults in several of the largest cities. This way the funds would be safe from inflation and denied to the state banks as revenue.
One of the two major U.S political party;founded in 1828 by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an "Indian Territory" where they would be "permanently" housed.
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles sided with the Confederacy. They owned slaves and felt like they had a common cause with the South. Confederate government took over federal payments for the tribes and invited them to send delegates to the Confederate conference. In return tribes supplied troops for the army. Some Cherokees and the Plain Indians sided with the Union but were not rewarded well.
Anti-tariff forces in South Carolina that controlled the state politics. They held a convention in 1832 and threatened the government with South Carolina secession from the Union if the tariffs were enforced.
people who wanted to stay in the Union and workout their differences over slavery
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 13 APUSH Vocab.
APUSH Chapter 13
chapter 13: the rise of mass democracy
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
STA 4210 Final
STA 4183 Exam 1
AMH 3423 Important People / Terms
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH American Pageant Chapter 14
APUSH American Pageant Chapter 11
APUSH American Pageant Chapter 12
APUSH American Pageant Chapter 15