63 terms

Western Civilization Exam 1

Chapters 1-4: First Civilizations, Ancient Near East, The Egyptians, The Hebrews, The Greek City-State, Democracy and Greek Thought
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Egypt and Mesopotamian
First people groups
Paleolithic
Old Stone Age
Neolithic
New Stone Age
economic, social, cultural, and religious development
Cities created became the center for what four types of development?
Prehistory
No written records, depend on archaeology and biological information
Hominids
earliest human-like creatures in Africa 3-4 million years ago
Homoerectus
upright human beings, 1.5 million years ago, move from Africa to Europe and Asia
Paleolithic Age
Old Stone Age, hunting & gathering of food, lived in small bands of 20-30, nomadic, spear, bow & arrow, fish hooks
Neolithic Age
New Stone Age, after the last ice age, agricultural revolution (food gathering to food production), 8000-7000 B.C., permanent settlements, trade began, refined stone tools
Agricultural Revolution
Food production in 8000-7000 B.C., favorable environment was fertile crescent
Bronze Age
Copper and tin combined makes bronze, more durable than copper, 3000-1200 B.C., Bronze then iron
Seige of Tyre
Island half a mile from land surrounded by walls. AtG builds a land bridge to Tyre
Civilization
Complex culture which large numbers of humans share a number of common elements
Six characteristics of civilization
urban focus, religious structure, new political and military structure, new social structure based on economic power, development of writing, new forms of artistic and intellectual activity
Tigris and Euphrates River
a place where civilizations emerged, fertile river valleys, between the two rivers is Mesopotamia, they get little rain but still have rich soil
Mesopotamia
'land between the Rivers' created by Sumerians, with independent cities, plenty of mud
Ziggurat
Massive stepped tower where temples were built atop
Theocracy
Government by divine authority, Sumerians believed gods ruled the cities
Code of Hammurabi
282 laws, for centuries they regulated relationships in Mesopotamia, reveals society with strict system of justic, focused much on marriage and family
Polytheistic
The belief of many gods, Mesopotamian religion
Cuneiform
'wedge shaped', oldest Mesopotamian texts written by Sumerians using this system, clay tablets
Nile River
Important development of Egyptians civilizations, longest river in the world, thousands of miles, black/red land, Miracle-flooding
Egypt: Old Kingdom
During time of third to sixth dynasties of Egyptian kings, kingship, vizier in charge of bureaucracy and other departments, agriculture was backbone of prosperity, taxes
Egypt: Middle Kingdom
Reorganized Nome structure, clear boundaries, taxes, laborers recruited, pharaoh's concern for people
Pyramids
During Old Kingdom, dedicated to dead for king, small pyramids for family, mastabas for nobles, Largest built under King Khufu at Gaza 2540 B.C.
Mummification
Properly preserve body, slowly drying a body to prevent it from decomposing
Hyksos
Semitic-speaking people, dominated much of Egypt bringing Middle Kingdom to an end, taught Egyptians bronze, war aspects
Amenhotep IV
Introduced worship of Aten god of sun disk as chief god, changed name to Akhenaten, strove to reduce priests influence and failed
Hittites
Empire in W. Asian, threatened Egyptian power, iron weapons, Great King with vassals in local areas, ability to assimilate other cultures to their own
Abraham
Patriarch to many descendants who migrated from Mesopotamia to Canaan and were known as 'The Children of Israel'
Monotheism
The belief of doctrine that there is only one god
Satrap/Satrapy
A governor with both civil and military duties in the ancient Persian Empire, which was divided into satrapies, or provinces, each administered by a satrap, "protector of the kingdom"
Zoroastrianism
A religion founded by the Oersian Zoroaster in the seventh century B.C. characterized by worship of a supreme god ahuramazda who represents the good against the evil spirit, identified as Ahriman
Hebrews
Semitic-speaking people with tradition concerning origins; OT descendants of Abraham and had migrated from Mesopotamia to Canaan, wandered for many years and then entered Canaan and organized twelve tribes
David
There was conflict with Philistines but he reunited the Israelite and defeated them
Divided Kingdoms
Tension between northern and southern tribes resulted in two kingdoms, Israel and Judah.
Babylonian Captivity
Persians destroyed the Chaldean Kingdom (Babylon) and allowed people of Judah to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their city.
Yahweh
Chief God of Israel: Among Babylonian exiles He became the only God.
Moses
led people of Israel out of bondage of Egypt into the promised land
Covenant
Yahweh spoken to Israelites through Moses. Israelites promised to obey Yahweh and follow his law and in return Yahweh promised special care of his chosen people.
Hebrew Law
Became important because of the covenant. Set forth specific requirements sacrifices, ethical concerns stood at center of law.
The Prophets
Israelites believed that certain religious leaders or holy men were sent by God to serve as his voice to his people. New concepts enriched Jewish tradition and Western Civilization.
Phoenicians
Semitic-speaking independent people, resided along Mediterranean coast, rebuilt three major cities after destruction by Sea Peoples. Expanded trade, produced a number of goods. improved ships, charted new routes, established colonies, best known as transmitters,
Assyrian Empire
First empire to emerge in ancient Near East, exploited use of iron, empire was overextended, nobles gained control of vast territories and waged their own private military campaigns, well organized, develop system of communication, effective military
Persian Empire
Indo-European speaking, joined Medes and Babylonians in attacking Assyrians. Cyrus the Great extended territory, with Darius they had the largest empire yet
Cyrus the Great
Leader of Persia, captured Babylon, wise and compassionate
Darius
Under his reign Persian Empire was the largest yet, organized satraps, Royal Road
The Royal Road
Crucial to sustaining Persian Empire, facilitated rapid transit of military and government personnel, Sardis to Susa. Horse and King's messengers.
Solomon
970 B.C. came to throne in Israel, created flourishing state through trade and foreign alliances, famed for skill as a judge, wisdom from God
Geography of Greece
Mountains, River valleys, volcanoes. Citizenship eventually expanded throughout Mediterranean. Lack of abundant fertile land.
Acropolis
The center of religious focus in Greece
Monarchy
Greek government ruled by kingship
Sparta
Military state, rigid and organized, Men joined military at age twenty
Greek Religion
Temples dedicated to god/goddess, Twelve Olympian gods. Social and practical
Aristocracy
In Athens, they held important offices
Athens
Democracy...
Socrates
stonemason, true love was philosophy, critic of Sophists, Socratic method (question and answer), convicted of corrupting youth of Athens by his teaching, sentenced to death
Plato
One of Socrates disciples, greatest philosopher of Western Civilization, Wrote a lot, question of reality, The Republic (ideas of gov), established school of Athens: Academy
Aristotle
Tutor to Alexander the Great, studied at the Academy, analyzing and classifying based on research, studied for best governments
Trojan War
Precipitated by Paris, a war lasting yen years due to the kidnapping of Queen Helen of Sparta, Greeks had victory
Polis
An ancient Greek city-state encompassing both an urban area and its surrounding countryside a small but autonomous political unit where all major political and social activities were carried out in a central location
Phalanx
A rectangular formation of tightly massed infantry soldiers
Mycenaean
Mainland Greeks part of the Indo-European family who considered themselves a warrior people