Marketing Research Exam 2- Questionnaire Design
Terms in this set (24)
Explain the role of research hypotheses in developing a questionnaire.
Hypotheses guide questionnaire development by determining what information will be sought and from whom (since the hypotheses specify what relationships will be investigated).
Define telescoping error and recall loss and explain how they affect a respondent's ability to answer questions correctly.
Telescoping error refers to people's tendency to remember an event as having occurred more recently than it did. Recall loss means they forget it happened at all. The degree to which the two types of error affect the accuracy of the reported information depends on the length of the period in question. For long periods, the telescoping effect is smaller, while the recall is larger. For short periods, the reverse is true.
Cite some of the techniques researchers use to secure respondents' cooperation in answering sensitive questions.
When asking sensitive questions, researchers may find it helpful to (a) guarantee respondent anonymity or confidentiality; (b) make use of a counterbiasing statement; (c) phrase the question in terms of others and how they might feel or act; (d) put sensitive questions near the end; (e) use categories or ranges rather than specific numbers; or (f) use the randomized-response model
Explain what a multichotomous question is.
In a multichotomous question, respondents are asked to choose from a list of alternatives the one that most closely reflects their position on the subject.
List some of the primary rules researchers should keep in mind in trying to develop bias-free questions.
Among the rules of thumb that researchers should keep in mind in developing bias-free questions are (1) use simple words, (2) avoid ambiguous words and questions, (3) avoid leading questions, (4) avoid unstated alternatives, (5) avoid assumed consequences, (6) avoid generalizations and estimates, and (7) avoid double-barreled questions.
Explain what the funnel approach to question sequencing is.
The funnel approach to question sequencing gets its name from its shape, starting with broad questions and progressively narrowing down the scope. This is important for question sequencing, because asking for specific information early in a questionnaire will often influence respondents' answers to later questions, a source of error known as question order bias.
Explain what a branching question is and discuss when it is used.
A branching question is one that contains a direction as to where to go next on the questionnaire based on the answer given. Branching questions are used to reduce the number of alternatives that are needed in individual questions, while ensuring that those respondents capable of supplying the needed information still have an opportunity to do so.
Explain the difference between basic information and classification information and tell which should be asked first in a questionnaire.
Basic information refers to the subject of the study; classification information refers to the other data we collect to classify respondents so as to extract more information about the phenomenon of interest. The proper questionnaire sequence is to present questions securing basic information first and those seeking classification information last.
Explain the role of pretesting in the questionnaire development process.
Questionnaire pretesting is the final step in the questionnaire development process. It is the last chance that the researcher has to ensure that the data collection form is working properly prior to data collection; pretesting must not be overlooked.
A question used to determine if a respondent is likely to possess the knowledge being sought; also used to determine if an individual qualifies as a member of the defined population.
A type of error resulting from the fact that most people remember an event as having occurred more recently than it did.
A type of error caused by a respondent's forgetting that an event happened at all.
An interviewing technique in which potentially embarrassing and relatively innocuous questions are paired, and the question the respondent answers is randomly determined but is unknown to the interviewer.
A fixed-alternative question in which respondents are asked to chose the alternative that most closely corresponds to their position on the subject.
Response order bias
An error that occurs when the response to a question is influenced by the order in which the alternatives are presented.
A technique used to combat response bias in which one phrasing is used for a question in one-half of the questionnaires while an alternative phrasing is used in the other one-half of the questionnaires.
A question framed so as to give the respondent a clue as to how he or she should answer.
An alternative answer that is not expressed in a question's options.
A problem that occurs when a question is not framed so as to clearly state the consequences, and thus it generates different responses from individuals who assume different consequences.
A question that calls for two responses and creates confusion for the respondent.
An approach to question sequencing that gets its name from its shape, starting with broad questions and progressively narrowing down the scope.
Question order bias
The tendency for earlier questions on a questionnaire to influence respondents' answers to later questions.
A technique used to direct respondents to different places in a questionnaire, based on their responses to the question at hand.
Use of a questionnaire (or observation form) on a trial basis in a small pilot study to determine how well the questionnaire (or observation form) works.
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