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Definition of Development

The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life cycle

Definition of Preformationism

pre 15th century (middle agoes): children were seen and treated as mini adults

Definition of Original Sin:

16th century: children were perceived as being born evil, childrearing focused on changing them to good

Two Pioneers in Child Psychology:

John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Definition of Tabula Rasa

17th century: John locke believed children were born as "blank slates" and acquired their characteristics through experience

Definition of Innate Goodness

18th century: Rousseau believed children were born good and should develop with little interference

Definition of Traditional Approach

emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence (bigger, better, stronger), little to no change in adulthood, and decline in old age

Definition of Life-Span Perspective

modern day approach to development

Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #1 Development is LifeLong (What does this mean?)

No age period dominates development.
Maximum human life span = about 122)
Average life expectancy = 78

Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #2 Development is Multidimensional (what are the dimensions?)

Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional dimensions

Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #3 Development is Multidirectional (meaning?)

Some dimensions or components of a dimension increase/decrease in growth

Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #4 Development is Multidisciplinary (What fields?)

Psychologists, Sociologists, Anthropologists, Neuroscientists, Medical Researchers, Teachers, etc.

Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #5 Development is Plastic

Plasticity involves the degree to which characteristics change or remain stable / the degree to which our developmental path is changeable

Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #6 Development is Contextual (Normative/non-, etc.)

Normative age-graded influences
- Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group

Normative history-graded influences
- Influences that are common to people of a past generation because of the historical circumstances they experience

Non-normative life events
- Unusual occurrences, patterns, and sequences of events not applicable to may individuals

Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #7 Development is Co-constructive (3 things)

shaped by biology, culture, and the individual

Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #8 (growth, maintenance, loss)

Development involves growth, maintenance, and loss

Definition of Nurture

An organism's environmental experiences

Definition of Nature

An organism's biological inheriteance (genes, DNA)

Definition of Developmental Theories

explain how and why people become the way they are

Two influential theories to development

Psychoanalytic and learning theories

Psychoanalytic Theories believe/explain...

that development is mainly a process of the unconscious mind and early childhood experiences. People move through stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. This conflict resolution determines adult personality.

Definition of The Unconscious

Area of highly active and powerful primitive drives and forbidden wishes constantly generate pressure on the conscious mind

Goal of psychoanalysis

to pull unconscious motives into consciousness

Definition of libido

internal drive for physical pleasure that drives our behaviors

Freud's 3 structures of personality: Definition of Id

Contains libido, operates on unconscious level, present at birth; unconscious impulses, needs, and desires

Freud's 3 structures of personality: Definition of Ego

Vehicle to satisfy id, develops at 2-3 years

Freud's 3 structures of personality: Definition of Superego

Moral judge based on rules of society, developed at about 6 years

Five stages of psychosexual development

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital stage

Definition of Oral stage

id gratification comes from oral exploration; problems lead to pessimism about world (oral fixation)

Definition of Anal stage

pleasure usually centered around toilet training; problems lead to excessive orderliness/messiness

Definition of Phallic stage

sex-role identification; problems lead to promiscuity/excessive chastity, vanity, sex-role identification problems

Definition of Latency stage

Libido channeled into mastery activities, time of focus on achievement and mastery skills

Definition of Genital stage

Time of mature personality, intimacy with others, libido satisfied by adult-type sexual activity

Classical Conditioning (Pavlov and Watson) definition

a process by which behaviors are learned through associations

Watson (Behaviorism) applied classical conditioning techniques to

human beings; "Little Albert" study

Watson's Behaviorism (three laws)

1. There are strict laws to behavior
2. Psychology must abandon study of mind, focus on observable behaviors
3. Human behavior is much more (if not all) influenced by environment/experience than by DNA (inherited factors.

Operant conditioning definition

Process by which organisms learn to behave in ways that produce desirable results

Definition of Evolutionary Psychology

Process of natural selection favors behaviors that increase our reproductive success (importance on genetic variation)

Human chromosomes pairs

22 matching pairs plus 1 sex chromosome = 46 chromosomes

Definition of Genotype

genetic material

Definition of Phenotype

our observable, measurable characteristics

Definition of conception

human egg and sperm unite, resulting in zygote

Definition of autosomes

first 22 pairs of chromosomes

X-linked inheritance are asserted more in

males, because males only have one chromosome (no other dominant x to make up for defects in theirs)

Definition of Polygenic Inheritance

characterstics are determined by the interaction of many different genes

Behavior and traits best summarized as...

multifactorial and polygenic

Definition of prenatal development

development from conception until birth

Definition of zygote

first cell formed when the egg and sperm unite and join genetic material

Definition of germinal period

conception to 14 days, zygote created and attaches to uterine wall (7-9 days), nourishment and protective systems develop, blastocyst develops

Definition of embryonic period

2-8 weeks following conception, MOST RAPID CHANGE (cell differentiation) HIGHEST VULNERABILITY FOR BIRTH DEFECTS

Definition of fetal period

2+ months after conception, GROWTH AND FINISHING PHASE (most rapid increase in size)

Definition of age of viability

point at which fetus can survive outside of the womb = 22-28 weeks

Definition of Teratogens

broad range of substances and environmental influences that may result in defects of the fetus (baby); first 2 weeks not susceptible

Definition of low birthweight

infants weight less than 5.5 pounds at birth

Definition of preterm infant

infant born 35 weeks or less after conception

Definition of Small-for-date/Small-for-gestational-age infant

birth weight below normal when length of pregnancy is considered; shows most developmental problems

Definition of Cephalocaudal pattern

head-to-tail growth

Definition of Proximodistal pattern

near-to-far growth = center to extremities

Definition of Puberty

Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes (sexual maturation, increase in weight/height) from about age 9-16

Growth spurt trend

Female growth spurt occurs earlier than males

The Endocrine system regulates...

growth and sexual maturation; works like THERMOSTAT

Definition of Senescence

begins in 30s, gradual related physical declines, subtle and often not noticeable

Physical patterns of change in early adulthood

physical performance peaks in 20s, height remains fairly constant, senescence begins in 30s

Two types of CNS cells

Neurons (transmitters) and Glial (supporter) cells

Medulla regulates...

heart rate, breathing, vital involuntary actions

Pons' role...

links to cerebellum

Cerebellum regulates...

balance, coordination, movement

Reticular formation regulates

arousal, attention, waking, sleeping

Definition of cerebrum

responsible for higher brain fuctions, complex thought, divided into frontal, parietla, occipital and temporal lobes

Temporal lobes contain

auditory cortex

Occipital lobes contain

visual cortex

Parietal lobes contain

somatosensory cortex (touch, spacial orientation)

Frontal lobes contain

motor cortex, planning, thinking, motivation

Role of Hypothalamus

Temperature regulation, hunger, hormones, mood, "pleasure center"

Brain Development: neural tube formation

1. blastocyst forms neural plate (gives rise to CNS), forms neural groove, fuses forming neural tube, ends close to form brain and spinal cord

Brain Development: sequencing

Neurulation, Neurogenesis (cell proliferation), Axon and dendrite development, Synaptogenesis, Myelination, Pruning

Brain Development: Definition of Neurulation

Process of forming and closing neural tube

Role of folic acid in brain development

greatly reduces chance of neural tube defects

Definition of Spina Bifida

Malformations of spinal cord caused by failure of closure of neural tube, lack of fusion of vertebral arches

Brain Development: Definition of Neurogenesis

birth of neurons; proliferation and migration

Brain Development: Definition of Migration

Neurons born first migrate to most inner positions, later neurons migrate past older situated neurons (outer layers develop last)

Brain Development: Definition of Axon and Dendrite Development

When neuroblasts reach destination, send out axons; dendrites begin to sprout and grow spines

Brain Development: Definition of Synaptogenesis

Formation of synapses; emergence of functioning

Brain Development: Definition of Myelination

Process of myelination begins in spinal cord, completes in cortex regions

Brain Development: Definition of Pruning

large number of neurons are eliminated; makes space for neurons that are being used

Definition of Brain Plasticity

lifelong ability of brain to reorganize neural pathways based on experiences

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