86 terms

Psych 212 Test 1

Definition of Development
The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life cycle
Definition of Preformationism
pre 15th century (middle agoes): children were seen and treated as mini adults
Definition of Original Sin:
16th century: children were perceived as being born evil, childrearing focused on changing them to good
Two Pioneers in Child Psychology:
John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Definition of Tabula Rasa
17th century: John locke believed children were born as "blank slates" and acquired their characteristics through experience
Definition of Innate Goodness
18th century: Rousseau believed children were born good and should develop with little interference
Definition of Traditional Approach
emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence (bigger, better, stronger), little to no change in adulthood, and decline in old age
Definition of Life-Span Perspective
modern day approach to development
Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #1 Development is LifeLong (What does this mean?)
No age period dominates development.
Maximum human life span = about 122)
Average life expectancy = 78
Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #2 Development is Multidimensional (what are the dimensions?)
Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional dimensions
Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #3 Development is Multidirectional (meaning?)
Some dimensions or components of a dimension increase/decrease in growth
Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #4 Development is Multidisciplinary (What fields?)
Psychologists, Sociologists, Anthropologists, Neuroscientists, Medical Researchers, Teachers, etc.
Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #5 Development is Plastic
Plasticity involves the degree to which characteristics change or remain stable / the degree to which our developmental path is changeable
Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #6 Development is Contextual (Normative/non-, etc.)
Normative age-graded influences
- Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group

Normative history-graded influences
- Influences that are common to people of a past generation because of the historical circumstances they experience

Non-normative life events
- Unusual occurrences, patterns, and sequences of events not applicable to may individuals
Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #7 Development is Co-constructive (3 things)
shaped by biology, culture, and the individual
Life-Span Perspective Characteristics #8 (growth, maintenance, loss)
Development involves growth, maintenance, and loss
Definition of Nurture
An organism's environmental experiences
Definition of Nature
An organism's biological inheriteance (genes, DNA)
Definition of Developmental Theories
explain how and why people become the way they are
Two influential theories to development
Psychoanalytic and learning theories
Psychoanalytic Theories believe/explain...
that development is mainly a process of the unconscious mind and early childhood experiences. People move through stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. This conflict resolution determines adult personality.
Definition of The Unconscious
Area of highly active and powerful primitive drives and forbidden wishes constantly generate pressure on the conscious mind
Goal of psychoanalysis
to pull unconscious motives into consciousness
Definition of libido
internal drive for physical pleasure that drives our behaviors
Freud's 3 structures of personality: Definition of Id
Contains libido, operates on unconscious level, present at birth; unconscious impulses, needs, and desires
Freud's 3 structures of personality: Definition of Ego
Vehicle to satisfy id, develops at 2-3 years
Freud's 3 structures of personality: Definition of Superego
Moral judge based on rules of society, developed at about 6 years
Five stages of psychosexual development
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital stage
Definition of Oral stage
id gratification comes from oral exploration; problems lead to pessimism about world (oral fixation)
Definition of Anal stage
pleasure usually centered around toilet training; problems lead to excessive orderliness/messiness
Definition of Phallic stage
sex-role identification; problems lead to promiscuity/excessive chastity, vanity, sex-role identification problems
Definition of Latency stage
Libido channeled into mastery activities, time of focus on achievement and mastery skills
Definition of Genital stage
Time of mature personality, intimacy with others, libido satisfied by adult-type sexual activity
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov and Watson) definition
a process by which behaviors are learned through associations
Watson (Behaviorism) applied classical conditioning techniques to
human beings; "Little Albert" study
Watson's Behaviorism (three laws)
1. There are strict laws to behavior
2. Psychology must abandon study of mind, focus on observable behaviors
3. Human behavior is much more (if not all) influenced by environment/experience than by DNA (inherited factors.
Operant conditioning definition
Process by which organisms learn to behave in ways that produce desirable results
Definition of Evolutionary Psychology
Process of natural selection favors behaviors that increase our reproductive success (importance on genetic variation)
Human chromosomes pairs
22 matching pairs plus 1 sex chromosome = 46 chromosomes
Definition of Genotype
genetic material
Definition of Phenotype
our observable, measurable characteristics
Definition of conception
human egg and sperm unite, resulting in zygote
Definition of autosomes
first 22 pairs of chromosomes
X-linked inheritance are asserted more in
males, because males only have one chromosome (no other dominant x to make up for defects in theirs)
Definition of Polygenic Inheritance
characterstics are determined by the interaction of many different genes
Behavior and traits best summarized as...
multifactorial and polygenic
Definition of prenatal development
development from conception until birth
Definition of zygote
first cell formed when the egg and sperm unite and join genetic material
Definition of germinal period
conception to 14 days, zygote created and attaches to uterine wall (7-9 days), nourishment and protective systems develop, blastocyst develops
Definition of embryonic period
2-8 weeks following conception, MOST RAPID CHANGE (cell differentiation) HIGHEST VULNERABILITY FOR BIRTH DEFECTS
Definition of fetal period
2+ months after conception, GROWTH AND FINISHING PHASE (most rapid increase in size)
Definition of age of viability
point at which fetus can survive outside of the womb = 22-28 weeks
Definition of Teratogens
broad range of substances and environmental influences that may result in defects of the fetus (baby); first 2 weeks not susceptible
Definition of low birthweight
infants weight less than 5.5 pounds at birth
Definition of preterm infant
infant born 35 weeks or less after conception
Definition of Small-for-date/Small-for-gestational-age infant
birth weight below normal when length of pregnancy is considered; shows most developmental problems
Definition of Cephalocaudal pattern
head-to-tail growth
Definition of Proximodistal pattern
near-to-far growth = center to extremities
Definition of Puberty
Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes (sexual maturation, increase in weight/height) from about age 9-16
Growth spurt trend
Female growth spurt occurs earlier than males
The Endocrine system regulates...
growth and sexual maturation; works like THERMOSTAT
Definition of Senescence
begins in 30s, gradual related physical declines, subtle and often not noticeable
Physical patterns of change in early adulthood
physical performance peaks in 20s, height remains fairly constant, senescence begins in 30s
Two types of CNS cells
Neurons (transmitters) and Glial (supporter) cells
Medulla regulates...
heart rate, breathing, vital involuntary actions
Pons' role...
links to cerebellum
Cerebellum regulates...
balance, coordination, movement
Reticular formation regulates
arousal, attention, waking, sleeping
Definition of cerebrum
responsible for higher brain fuctions, complex thought, divided into frontal, parietla, occipital and temporal lobes
Temporal lobes contain
auditory cortex
Occipital lobes contain
visual cortex
Parietal lobes contain
somatosensory cortex (touch, spacial orientation)
Frontal lobes contain
motor cortex, planning, thinking, motivation
Role of Hypothalamus
Temperature regulation, hunger, hormones, mood, "pleasure center"
Brain Development: neural tube formation
1. blastocyst forms neural plate (gives rise to CNS), forms neural groove, fuses forming neural tube, ends close to form brain and spinal cord
Brain Development: sequencing
Neurulation, Neurogenesis (cell proliferation), Axon and dendrite development, Synaptogenesis, Myelination, Pruning
Brain Development: Definition of Neurulation
Process of forming and closing neural tube
Role of folic acid in brain development
greatly reduces chance of neural tube defects
Definition of Spina Bifida
Malformations of spinal cord caused by failure of closure of neural tube, lack of fusion of vertebral arches
Brain Development: Definition of Neurogenesis
birth of neurons; proliferation and migration
Brain Development: Definition of Migration
Neurons born first migrate to most inner positions, later neurons migrate past older situated neurons (outer layers develop last)
Brain Development: Definition of Axon and Dendrite Development
When neuroblasts reach destination, send out axons; dendrites begin to sprout and grow spines
Brain Development: Definition of Synaptogenesis
Formation of synapses; emergence of functioning
Brain Development: Definition of Myelination
Process of myelination begins in spinal cord, completes in cortex regions
Brain Development: Definition of Pruning
large number of neurons are eliminated; makes space for neurons that are being used
Definition of Brain Plasticity
lifelong ability of brain to reorganize neural pathways based on experiences