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AP US History: A New Nation
Terms in this set (63)
Strict constructionist- enumerated powers
Elected President in 1800
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State under James Monroe. Helped create the Monroe Doctrine
Embargo Act of 1807
The French and British began blocking each other's trade routes which affected American commerce. GB began impressing sailors. Jefferson could not wage war because the British navy was far too powerful. Jefferson enacted an Embargo which did not allow Americans to import or export anything. This led to terrible economic consequences, but it did encourage manufacturing in the North. Short term effect: New England economy collapsed
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun who prompted for war- opportunity for expansion
He got rid of the Embargo
France cut trade off from England and England continued to attack ships
The Marshall Court
Chief Justice John Marshall was a believer in a large central government
Marbury v. Madison
economic nationalist---promoted businesses
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
A state cannot encroach on a contract
McCulloch v. Maryland
court struck down a Maryland law taxing the Baltimore branch of the national bank
national law is over state law
Era of Good Feelings (1816-1824)
James Monroe's Presidency
Plagued with economic and sectional divisions
Panic of 1819
there was economic growth which led to inflation and land speculation. The National Bank called in for its loans and no one could pay them back which led to mortgage foreclosures and business failures
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
also known as Transcontinental Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain (now Mexico).
America had the right to intervene in its own hemisphere
Recognized new Latin American nations
The powerful British navy made sure that European nations would stay out of American affairs
Cannot be colonized
secured American neutrality until World War I
The Missouri Compromise (1820)
Missouri was the first state out of the LA territory but there was a balance of eleven free states and eleven slaves states so Henry Clay made a compromise:
1)MO would be a slave state
2)ME would be a free state
3)36 degree 30" parallel across the territory
4) the southern border of MO would be the northern most point at which slavery should be allowed
* Split the Democratic-Republicans
Tariffs to promote American manufacturing
South did not benefit on this
Marbury v. Madison
Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution.
In the midst of the panic, a crisis over slavery erupted with stunning suddenness. It was, Thomas Jefferson wrote, like "a firebell in the night." The crisis was ignited by Missouri's application for statehood and it involved the status of slavery west of the Mississippi River. East of the Mississippi, the Ohio River formed a boundary between slave states and free states. West of the Mississippi, there was no clear line demarcating the boundary between free and slave territory.
Devoted or loyal to the nation as a whole (States coming together to fight War of 1812)
Sectionalism is loyalty or support of a particular region or section of the nation, rather than the United States as a whole. Slavery was particularly sectional issue, dividing the country into North and South
Second Bank of the United States
chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business. However, the Second Bank would not even enjoy the limited success of the First Bank. Although foreign ownership was not a problem (foreigners owned about 20% of the Bank's stock), the Second Bank was plagued with poor management and outright fraud (Galbraith). In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) the Supreme Court voted 9-0 to uphold the Second Bank as constitutional.
Francis Cabot Lowell
was an American businessman for whom the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, is named. He was instrumental in bringing the Industrial Revolution to the United States.
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Gibbons vs Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that THE CONSTITUTION GIVES CONGRESS ALONE THE CONTROL OF INTERSTATE COMMERCE. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Fletcher vs Peck
(1810) the Supreme Court struck down a state law as unconstitutional. In the Yazoo Land Fraud Georgia claimed a bunch of land from the Louisiana Purchase that it had no right to claim. Georgia then sold the land to speculators who sold it to farmers. The Federal government stepped in and takes back the land and tells Georgia to give back the money but the money will just end up with the speculators and not the farmers. The Federal government says that the farmers must be paid. This was asserting federal power over state power.
Definition: The national road was the first highway built with entirely federal funds. Congress authorized the road in 1806 during the Jefferson Administration.
Significance: This was the first road open to all people, which opened up many new trade routes and ways to get to other states. It was very helpful in creating a national economy.
Tariff of Abominations
Definition: It was a tariff bill with higher import duties for many goods bought by Southern planters.
Significance: This meant the Southerners had to buy manufactured goods for a higher price and sell their crops in reduced amounts, due to the high tariff. This angered Southerners, especially South Carolinians, resulting in the Nullification Crisis.
American engineer and inventor Robert Fulton is best know for developing the first successful commercial steamboat, the North River Steamboat (later known as the Clermont) which carried passengers between New York City and Albany, New York. Fulton also designed the world's first steam warship. He also designed the "Nautilus," the first practical submarine in history, which was built in 1800.
The Great Migration Westward
Louis and Clark Expedition in 1804-1806 explores missouri river and oregon. American Fur Company began establish posts along the Missouri River. Construction of National Road and building of several canals - all lead to young men and woman wanting to head West for new land and new potential. Westward movement affected economy, peoples thrusted together. Pop. + econ. pressures, land availability, decreased Indian resistance
or Trading Post - which was market, warehouse, customs, defense and support to navigation or exploration, headquarters or de facto government of local communities in interactions with Native Americans. supplied the Indians with goods to drive them westward for American expansion
refers to the area that became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and a portion of Minnesota.
First arrivals in South were small farmers, wealthier planters followed buying and clearing smaller lands. Brought w/ them slaves, eventually mansions grew up from simpler log cabins symbolizing emergence of a newly rich class.
region of the Deep South with the highest concentration of slaves; the "Black belt" emerged in the nineteenth century as cotton production became more profitable and slavery expanded south and west
Sante Fe Trail
the 900 mile trail opened by American merchants for trading purposes following Mexico's liberalization of the formerly restrictive trading policies of Spain
Stephen H Long, Fur Trade
Stephen Long led an expedition up the Platte and South Platte Rivers through Nebraska and eastern Colorado. He noted the potential for settlement in the area, and labeled the Great Plains the "Great American Desert".
Many white fur trappers began to move into the Great Lakes region and beyond and trapped on their own without native intermediaries. These men worked for companies or on their own.
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
Monroe's cabinet choices
also known as Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain (now Mexico).
Cohens vs Virginia
Cohens found guilty of selling illegal lottery tickets and convicted, but taken to supreme court, and Marshall asserted right of Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme court decisions.
Johnson vs Macintosh
Established that Indian tribes had rights to tribal lands that preceded all other American law; only the federal government could take land from the tribes.
Worcester vs Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Andrew Jackson won the presidential election of 1828 to succeed Quincy Adams as president. He created the Democratic Republicans who called for an assault on privilege and widening of opportunity. Began the "age of the common man."
The Tallmadge Amendment was a proposed amendment to a bill requesting the Territory of Missouri to be admitted to the Union as a free state. This amendment was submitted on February 13, 1819, by James Tallmadge, Jr., a Democratic-Republican from New York.
"Father of the Erie Canal," served in the New York State Legislature and the U.S. Senate, and was Mayor of New York City and Governor of New York State.
He served in the Continental Army during the Revolution. In the 1790s he had embraced the Federalist Party. Marshall tossed the Republicans a few crumbs by ruling that the Supreme Court could not compel Madison to deliver Marbury's commission. Then he argued that the Court could not issue a writ of mandamus in its original jurisdiction. The 1st time the court had declared an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Thomas Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri as a slave state but forbid slavery north of the 36°30" latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region.
Became known as Missouri Compromise
Maine would be admitted as a free state
Missouri would be admitted as a slave state
• Senator Jesse B. said that an amendment should be made so there could not be any more slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern border of Missouri (the 36° 30' parallel)
• Maine-Missouri bill went through (became known as the Missouri Compromise)
Cherokee Nation v Georgia
1831. Cherokee sued Georgia because the state had declared all Cherokee laws void. Marshall and the Supreme Court ruled that Cherokees could not sue because they were not a foreign nation nor real citizens.
decision for Henry Clay to support John Quincy Adams' presidency that backfired on him
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
"New two party system"
There was a formation of a two-party system. The two parties consisted of the Democrats and the Whigs (the National Republican Party had died out). Jacksonian Democrats glorified the liberty of the individual. They supported states' rights and federal restraint in social and economic affairs. The Whigs supported the natural harmony of society and the value of community. They favored a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms, such as the prohibition of liquor and the abolition of slavery.
John C Calhoun
vice president under John Quincy Adams
Ran against Martin Van Buren in 1836 presidential election. Least amount of popular vote.
Part of Webster-Hayne debate of 1830. Fought with Robert Hayne over the conflicts between the north and south.
The idea that a state has the ability to nullify federal laws and decisions that they do not agree with.
A nickname given to Andrew Jackson by conservatives as an insult after he allowed commons into the white house on the night of his inauguration; they created a mob, wrecking china and furniture and causing Jackson to have to sneak out for his safety.
Webster Hayne Debate 1830
Robert Hayne debated Daniel Webster regarding the conflict between north and south. Hayne voiced the animosity that the south held for the northern states.
Martin Van Buren
8th President of the United States, 1837 - 1941
Vice president under Andrew Jackson, 1833 - 1837
Black Hawk War
1832 war in which federal troops and Illinois militia units defeated the Sauk and Fox Indians led by Black Hawk. They refused to be pushed out of their land.
Issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
The Great Triumvirate
three statesmen who dominated the United States Senate in the 1830s and '40s: Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. All three were extremely active in politics, had been appointed United States Secretary of State, and had served in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
during era of jacksonian democracy
pro bank of u.s. (national bank)
pro high tariffs
pro federal funding for internal improvements
pro political action for social reform
divided on terms of slavery to conscience and cotton whigs
The Aroostook War
A dispute arose over between the U.S. and Britain over the Maine-Canada border, mainly lumberjacks fighting on each side over who'd get to chop down the lumber.
1842, was a treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies. Signed under John Tyler's presidency, it resolved the Aroostook War, a nonviolent dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border.
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