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Chapter 5 - The First World Civilization: Rome, China and Silk Road
HCEC High School
Terms in this set (59)
culture that ruled rome prior to the republic; ruled through powerful kings and well organized armies; romans won indepenence 510 BCE
ordinary citizens; originally roman families that could not trace relationships to one of the major roman clans
two chief executives of the roman republic; elected annually by the assembly dominated by the aristocracy
the social relationship whereby wealthy roman landholders offered protection and financial aid to lesser citizens in return for political and labor suport
basic infantry unit of the roman military; developed during the republic; 5,000 men per legion
founded by the Phoenicians in Tunisia; became a major empire in the wester mediterranean; fought the three punic wars with rome for mediterranean dominance; defeated and destroyed by the romans
carthaginian general during the 2nd punic war; invaded italy but failed to conquer rome; finally defeated in africa at battle of zama
balanced political system of rome from 510 to 47 bce featured an aristocratic senate, a panel of magistrates, and popular assemblies
Plebian officials elected annually during the roman republic
Tiberius and Galus Gracchus
tribunes who attempted to introduce land and citizneship reform under the late roman republic both killed by order of the senate
roman general during the last century bce introduced the use of paid volunters in the army rather than citizen conscripts; became a military force with personal loyalty to its commander
conservative military commander during last century bce attempted to reinforce powers of the senate and to counter the influence of marius
general responsible for the conquest of gaul; brought army back to rome and overthrew republic assassinated by conservative senators
later took name of augustus; julius caesar's grandnephew and adopted son; defeated conservative senatros after caesars assassination; became first roman emperor
conservative senator and stoic philosopher; one of the great orators of his day
great roman epic poet during golden age of latin literature; author of the aeneid
poet who adapted greek poetic meters to latin; author of lyrical poetry laudatory of the empire
poet exiled by augustus for sensual poestry considered out of touch with imperial policies stressing family values
historian who linked the roman empire to the tradition of the repulican past; stressed the virtues thought to be opular during the early empire
general principles of law applicable to all societies; became a fundamental concept of the roman empire's legal sysem; related to stoic ehtical theory
emperor 101-106 bce, instituted a more aggressive imperial foreign policy resulting in expansion of the empire to its greatest limits
jesus of nazareth
jewish teacher and prophet; believed by his followers to be the messiah; executed by the romans 30 ce
heads of regional christian churches
early christian leader; moved away from the insistence that adherents of the new religion follow jewish law; used greek as the language of the church
dynasty founded at the end of the warring states period
first emperor of china; founder of qin dnasty
Warring States period
time of warfare between regional lords following the decline of the Zhou dynasty in the8th century
major chinese philosopher boring in 6th century bce sayings collected in analects; philosophy based on the NEED for restoration of social order through the role of superior MEN
major follower of confucius; stressed that humans were esssentially good and that governments requiered the consent of their subjects
follower of confucius; stressed that humans were inherently lazy and evil and required an authoritarian government
chinese daoist philosopher; taught that governments were of secondary importancce and recommended retreat from society into nature
philosophy associated with Laozi individual should seek alignment with Dao or cosmic force
chinese school of political philosophy; stressed the need for the absolute power of the emperor enforced through strict application of laws
chinese defensive fortification built fo keep out northern nomadic invaders; began during the reign of Shi Huangdi
author of The Art of War; argued that war was an extension of statecraft and should be fought according to scientific principles
founder of the Han dynasty in 202 bce
dynasty suceedding the qin
chinese classs created by the marital linkage of the local landholding aristocracy with the office holding shi.
chinese peasant organizations; provided members financial support during hard times and physical potection during dispute with local aristocracy.
imperial precinct wihtin Chinese capital cities; only imperial family, advisors, and household were permitted to enter
member of a powerful family related to the Han emperors through marriage; temporarily overthrew the Han
castrated males used within household of Chinese emperors, usually to uard his concubines, became a politlcal counterbalance to powerful marital relatives during later Han ruler
large landed estates in the Roman Empire (singular: latifundium).
the dominant male in a Roman family whose powers over his wife and children were theoretically unlimited, though they were sometimes circumvented in practice.
the chief popular assembly of the Roman Republic. It passed laws and elected the chief magistrates.
civil service examination
an elaborate Chinese system of selecting bureaucrats on merit, first introduced in 165 c.e., developed by the Tang dynasty in the seventh century c.e., and defined under the Song dynasty; later adopted in Vietnam and with less success in Japan and Korea. It contributed to efficient government, upward mobility, and cultural uniformity.
the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic. Two were chosen annually to administer the government and lead the army in battle.
council of the plebs
a council only for the plebians. Aft er 287 b.c., however, its resolutions were binding on all Romans.
in the Roman Republic, an official granted unlimited power to run the state for a short period of time, usually six months, during an emergency
the five emperors who ruled from 96 to 180 (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius), a period of peace and prosperity for the Roman Empire.
a body of laws or specific principles held to be derived from nature and binding on all human society even in the absence of positive laws.
great landowners who became the ruling class in the Roman Republic; in Early Modern Europe, a term used to identify the ruling elites of cities.
Pax Romana "Roman peace,"
the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the Mediterranean world and much of western Europe during the first and second centuries c.e.
the class of Roman citizens who included nonpatrician landowners, craft speople, merchants, and small farmers in the Roman Republic. Their struggle for equal rights with the patricians dominated much of the Republic's history.
the military unit that served as the personal bodyguard of the Roman emperors.
the two senior Roman judges, who had executive authority when the consuls were away from the city and could also lead armies.
the leading council of the Roman Republic; composed of about three hundred men (senators) who served for life and dominated much of the political life of the Republic.
the integration of Confucian doctrine with Legalist practice under the Han dynasty in China, which became the basis of Chinese political thought until the modern era.
tribunes of the plebs
beginning in 494 b.c.e., Roman officials who were given the power to protect plebeians against arrest by patrician magistrates.
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