soc ch 8
Terms in this set (51)
societys ranking of people based on valued resources
closed stratification systems
-movement from one social position to another is limited by ascribed statuses
owning people as property and having total control over their lives
-involves kidnapping, inheriring, or gifting slaves
peoples positions are ascribed at birth and fixed
-peoples places in hierarchy are determined by inherited characteristics
-race, skin color, gender, family background, or nationality
open stratification systems
-allows movement up or down as mobility is influenced by peoples achievements
People's positions are based on birth and achievement
Rank in a society based on wealth, education, power, prestige, and other valued resources
-economic assets that a person or family owns
-income: money a person receives
-passed on to the next generation
-Income is earned through wages or salaries, and it includes rents, interest on savings accounts, stock dividends, royalties, or business proceeds.
-respect, recognition, or regard attached to social position
-characteristics of prestigious occupations:
require formal education
nonmanual and require abstract thought
involves self-expression, autonomy, and freedom from supervision
-Prestige is based on many criteria, including wealth, family background, power, and accomplishments.
People typically evaluate others according to the kind of work they do.
-influences or controls others behavior
-Status consistency - Experienced by people who are equal in wealth, prestige, and power
-Status inconsistency - Person ranking differently on stratification factors
socioeconomic status (SES)
-overall ranking of a person's position in a society
-depends on income, education, and occupation
-differs in values, power, prestige, social networks, and lifestyles
-people who have inherited wealth
-shape economic and political climate through a variety of mechanisms
-people who have worked for their income
-includes entrepreneurs and political climate through a variety of mechanisms
-shape the economic and political climate include dominating the upper levels of business and finance, holding top political positions in the federal government, underwriting thousands of think tanks and research institutes that formulate national policies, and shaping public opinion through the mass media.
-Conspicuous consumers - Lavish spending on goods and services to display one's social status and enhance one's prestige.
-members who live on earned income
-includes occupations which require a advanced professional degree
-composed of people in non manual occupations
-consists less autonomy and freedom from supervision
-involves limited chance for advancement
-Most of the occupation of the upper middle-class have considerable on-the-job autonomy and freedom from supervision, but these people are three times more likely than those in the general population to work 50 or more hours per week.
-consists of skilled and semiskilled laborers
-jobs do not require a college education
(offer minimum or no opportunity for growth
-The working class includes construction workers, assembly-line workers, truck drivers, auto mechanics, repair personnel, bartenders, and skilled craft workers
-people who work minimum 27 weeks a year and have wages below the official poverty level
-people who are poor and unemployed, residentially segregated, and isolated from the remaining population
-Lower class people have little education, few occupational skills, work in minimum wage jobs, or are unemployed.
-Members of the underclass may have some earnings, but are often dependent on income from government programs, including Social Security, public assistance, and veterans' benefits.
social class: application
Maria is a dental technician working in a large clinic? lower-middle class
Kevin dropped out of high school, works in agriculture only in the summer, has trouble making ends meet? working poor
William inherited family wealth, attended private schools, and became a politician
Extent to which people have positive experiences and secure efficient things in life due to economic resources
absolute: lacking money to afford the basic necessities of life
relative: failing to maintain an average standard of living
-The US Department of Education found that the percent of high poverty schools rose from 12 percent to 17 percent between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008 school years. The number of schools with at least three quarters of their children eligible for free or reduced lunch has hit an all time high. This is an example of relative poverty and as well as a poverty line and indicator.
-minimal income level necessary for basic subsistences as per the federal gov
-The poverty line, which in 2013 was $23,624 for a family of four (two adults and two children), is adjusted every year to reflect cost of living increases. If a family makes more than the poverty line, it is usually not eligible for public assistance.
criticism of poverty line
-fails to include:
-value of non cash benefits
-child care and job transportation costs or the cost-of-living expenses
-estimates exclude several people who live above the poverty line
Due to of increases in divorce, nonmarital childbearing, and low-paying jobs, single-mother families are at least four to five times more likely to be poor than married-couple families that have two wage earners, and are more likely to be extremely poor over many years.
explanations for poverty
culture of poverty: poor do not succeed because they are deficient
-New York State's welfare rolls have expanded over the last year. Suburban Long Island poverty is growing faster than New York City's poverty with a 20 percent spike in just one year. Suburban poverty is the largest growing population. In Long Island home, foreclosures is an important characteristic.
-movement up or down the social class hierarchy
-intragenerational: movement up or down the class hierarchy over ones lifetime
-intergenerational: movement up or down the class hierarchy relative to the position of ones parents
movie- "the boxer"
A young male Mexican boxer tries to evade poverty by going to the United States. From a peasant village in Sierra de Oaxaca in southern Mexico, Luis's story shows how immigrants come into the United States and the options they have in the world economy. It is a good film to illustrate immigration poverty, global poverty, and mobility.
social mobility: application
Cameron graduated from college, left welfare, and secured a semiprofessional position: Intragenerational mobility.
Cecelia grew up with a mother who worked cleaning motels, but Cecelia is a doctor.
Intergenerational vertical mobility.
factors that affect social mobility
-changes in the economy
-government policies and programs
-include macro-level variables, over which people have minimum or no control.
factors that affect social mobility
-education: People with college and graduate degrees fare better than those with a high school education or less, especially when the economy is slumping.
-gender: Women's massive entry into the labor force since the 1980s has increased family income and many single women's upward mobility.
-race and ethnicity: - African Americans and Latinos, especially those from low-income families, usually experience little upward mobility.
-geography: place where one lives can stimulate or dampen upward mobility
factors that affect social mobility
-Research indicates that children's social class in adulthood is same as their family's
-parents income level
-socialization- affects the habits of speech and lifestyle
Upper-class parents cultivate flexibility, autonomy, and creativity.
Poor and working-class parents stress obedience, honesty, and appearance.
High-income parents have social connections to jobs and admission to particular schools or colleges.
-worldwide inequality patterns
(result from differences in wealth, power, and prestige)
-wealth and income inequality
(vary across regions)
Living in a wealthy country does not mean that people enjoy income equality. The United States ranks 31st in income equality, of 34 countries.
women and children:
-experience maximum inequality across all nations
-infant mortality rate:Number of babies under age 1 who die per 1,000 live births in a year
(measure a countries health)
(linked with women's low education level)
Women are less likely than men to be employed because of cultural attitudes about women's roles and child rearing responsibilities.
overall income differences between women and men in a workplace
Other Consequences of Global Stratification
-people suffer from hunger and malnutrition
-increased levels of sorrow, health problems, and less chances to avoid poverty
-facilitates rich people to get political favors
theories to explain inequality
-low-income countries are poor as their leaders lack attitudes and values
-blames poor nations for their poverty and other problems
-low-income countries are exploited and dominated and by high-income countries
-economic systems of the world help rich countries to stay rich while poor countries stay poor
-High-income countries can extract raw materials (e.g., diamonds and oil) with little cost. They can also set prices, regardless of market values, for agricultural products that low-income countries export.
-Stratification is necessary and inevitable
-Social class provides people with a place in the social world and motivates them to contribute
social stratification benefits a society
-Society must fill various positions and ensure accomplishment of vital tasks
-Society's survival depends on some positions
-Qualified people should fill the key positions
-Society must offer rewards to motive the qualified people in filling crucial positions
belief that social stratification is based on peoples accomplishments
Fail to explain why:
-Intergenerational upward social mobility is limited in the United States
-College graduates are finding low-paying jobs
-Racial and ethnic income and wealth gap persists across all social classes
criticism of Davis-Moore thesis by sociologist MELVIN TUMIN
-Limited association between earnings and the job that helps society's survival
-Overlook many ways in which stratification limits upward mobility
-Ignore role of inheritance
-Social stratification is dysfunctional because it hurts individuals and societies
-economic struggles of the middle and working classes are due to government policies that favor the rich
-"Interview with Michael Mann on the Origins of Power - Marx and Weber":
Interview with Michael Mann on his career in England. Mann discusses Marx and the origins of social power. Shows how classical social theory is relevant today. Mann discusses his career path in sociology.
People who own and control capital and the means of production
workers who sell their labor for wages
Subsidies, tax breaks, and government assistance created for businesses
-weakens peoples trust in political and economic institutions
-erodes national solidarity
-Exaggerate the existence and effects of economic inequality
-Underrate people's ability to be upwardly mobile
-Ignore that government programs have reduced poverty
-gender inequality results in discrimination in the economy, politics, and access to medical services
-Men shape the stratification system in a patriarchal system
-Gender gaps limit women to access resources and opportunities
-Feminization of poverty results in women's downward mobility.
-Women often have to overcome economic inequities as well as juggle domestic and workplace responsibilities.
-Focus on poor women alone in showing how patriarchy affects stratification and social class
-Fail to explain why women succeed despite patriarchal barriers
-Do not address cross-cultural variations
Symbolic Interaction Perspectives
-focus on how people reproduce social classes
-address micro-level issues
Interaction and socialization of children are different across social classes
Social contexts affect mobility
Social stratification is internalized
-The social classes into which children are born affect their aspirations, the skills they value and to which they have access, and the networks and resources on which they can draw.
Symbolic Interaction Perspectives
-fail to explain how siblings vary in mobility
-ignore structural factors
Sociological Explanations: Application
Inequality ensures that important jobs are filled by the most talented
High-income countries set prices for raw materials and labor
Children learning habits and attitudes from their parents