Part III Review Chap 8, 9, 10 IUS Spring 2012

What is the pathway of light?
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Terms in this set (136)
Interferes with rod function and hinders ones ability to see at night?night blindnessWhat is the lack of one to three cone types and the most common is the lack of red and green receptors?color blindnessExcessive vision or farsightedness is ?hyperopiaMuscle vision or nearsightedness is?myopiaAn impairment of vision as a result of old age is?presbyopiaThe membrane between the outer and middle ear; also called eardrum is the?tympani membraneWhat is the names of the three ossicle bones?malleus-incus-staplesWhat is the name of the canal that leads from the middle ear to the pharynx?auditory tubeWhat spirally wound tube of the inner ear contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells?cochleaWhat is the sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear?organ of cortiWhat connects the semicircular canals and the cochlea and helps maintain balance?vestibuleWhat nerve deafness occurs with the process of aging?presbycusis (occurs 60")What is harding of the bony tissue of the middle ear?otosclerosisWhat is the pathway of Sound?pinna - auditory canal - tympani membrane - malleus,incus, and staples- oval window - cochlea (organ of corti) - vestibulocochlear nerve - brain - the temporal lobeWhat changes the shape of the lens/eye?ciliary bodyWhat does the cilliary body need to do to see far?relaxesWhat changes the shape of the pupil?irisWhat are the three layers of the eye?1. Sclera 2. Choroid 3. RetinaWhat does the ciliary body need to do to see near?contractsWhat provides the structure of the eyeball?vitreous humorWhat determines the color of the iris?melaninWhat receptor cell detects dim light?rodsWhat receptor cell detects color?conesWhere is the first place light enters the eye?corneaWho is the Master gland?hypothalamusWhere is the 2nd place that light is refracted?the lensWhere are rods and cones found?in the retinaWhat hearing loss pertains to old age?presbycusis (occurs 60's)What imagine is in the back of of eye/ or what is the physiology of vision?reverse, upside down, left to rightWhat turns the imagine in the back of the eye around?the brainIf you have a vitamin A deficiency what might you get?night blindnessWhat is it called when you are missing the green cone?color blindnessWho is in charge of maintaining the equilibrium?vestibuleWhat are the three little bones located in the middle ear?malleus, incus, staplesWhat is vision loss due to old age?presbyopia (occurs 40's)What is farsightedness?hyperopiaWhat is nearsightedness?myopiaWhat is the tube called that maintains atmosphere pressure?auditory tubeWhat transmits sound from the tympani membrane and vibrates the oval window?malleus, incus, and staples (three middle ear bones)What allows air in and out of the ear?auditory tubeWhat part of the ear has liquid inside, and has hair cells that hold the organ of corti?cochleaWhat is the physiology of a sound wave?vibrates - vibrates - vibrates - moves liquid -bends the hair cells - - messages goes to the nerve -brain turns it aroundWhat are the (3) three cone colors?red, green, and blueWhat is another name for the eardrum?tympani membraneWhat hormone promotes sleep?melatoninWhat hormone develops and maintains the females secondary sex characteristics?estrogenWhat hormone stimulates the gonads?luteinizing hormone (LH)What lowers blood glucose?insulinWhat hormone stimulates the growth of thyroid gland?thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)What is negative feedback?stimulus that declines or stopsWhat is positive feedback?increase of the stimulusWhat hormone controls the development and maintenance of the secondary sex characteristics in males?testosteroneWhat hormone controls of the let down of milk?oxytocinWhat has the function to stimulate the metabolism?Thyroxine (T4) /or Triidothronin (T3)What hormone stimulates the growth of bone and muscles?growth hormone (GH)What hormone helps stimulate the production of milk?prolactinWhat hormone raises blood glucose levels?glucagonWhat hormone stimulates the fight or flight mechanism?epinephrineWhat hormone prevents urine production?Antidiurectic hormone (ADA)What lobe of the pituitary gland releases the hypothalamus hormone?posterior lobeWhat stimulates the production of the egg or sperm?Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)What stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex?Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)What is the final stage of hemostasis?fibrin forms a mesh and the clot is formedWhat blood cell clots blood?thrombocytes or plateletsWhat leukocyte/ (WBC) releases histamine and heparin?basophilsWhat leukocyte/ (WBC) are active phagocytes during short term infections?neutrophilsWhat leukocyte/ (WBC) fights tumors and viruses?lymphocytesWhat is the (3) three step process of the events of hemostasis?First: Spams occur - vasocontriction Secon: Platelets plug form - platelets adhere Third: Coagulation event occurs - fibrin's forms a mesh that traps RBC's _ forming the clotHow are platelets involved in hemostasis?stopping the flow of bloodWhat is platelets/ or thrombocytes?normal clotting blood cellsWhat are the (5) five different types of leukocytes (WBC's)?1. Neutrophils 2. Eosinophils 3. Basophils 4. Lymphocytes 5. MonocytesWhat is the Universal blood recipient and most rare?AB blood typeWhat is the Universal blood donor and most common?OWhat type of tissue is blood?connective tissueBlood is connective tissue in which ________ blood cells are suspended by a _________ matrix.1. living 2. non-livingWhich blood type is the only complete blood cell; in that it contains nuclei and organelles?Leukocytes (WBC's)How many liters of blood is in the adult human body?4-6 litersBlood is made of ____ Plasma and ____ Blood Cells.1. 55% Plasma 2. 45% Blood CellsWhy is arterial blood bright red?it's full of oxygenName the living cells in the blood:1. erythrocytes (RBC's) 2. leukocytes (WBC's) 3. Thrombocytes (Platelets)What is plasma made up of?1. water 2. salt 3. plasma protein 4. other substance (that is transported in the blood)Water is ___% of plasma volume?90%What is the non-living matrix?plasmaWhy is venous blood dark red?it is lacking oxygenWhy does plasma need salt?to maintain balanceHow does erythrocytes (RBC's) transport oxygen?hemoglobin (contains iron)Coagulation is blood ______ and agglutination is _____ of the blood.1. blood clotting (good) 2. clumping of the blood (bad)How long does erythrocytes (RBC's) live?120 daysWhat type of cells destroy erythrocytes after 120 days?phagocytes or macrophagesWhat blood cells transport oxygen?erythrocytes (RBC's)Insulin does what to blood glucose?lowersAntidiuretic and oxytocin are controlled by what gland?hypothalamus glandThe thyroxine hormone is controlled by what gland?thyroid glandThe adrenocorticotropic and follicle-stimulating hormones is controlled by what gland?pituitary glandEpinephrine hormone is controlled by what gland?adrenal glandGlucagon and insulin are controlled by the?pancreasEstrogen hormone is controlled by?ovariesTestosterone hormone is controlled by?testesMelatonin levels are controlled by?pineal glandACTHstimulates the growth of the adrenal cortexFSHstimulates the production of the egg or spermT4 (Thyroxine)function to stimulate the metabolismADAprevents urine productionLHstimulates the gonadsTSHstimulates the growth of thyroid glandGHstimulates the growth of bone and musclesWhat is the (2) step in the process of the events of hemostasis?platelet plug is formedWhat lobe release the hormones for the pituitary gland?anterior lobeHow does the brain see you?right side upWhat is so special about the cochlea?1. liquid 2. hair cells - organ of cortiWhere is all blood cells made?red bone marrowWhat is the most rarest blood type?ABWhat is the most common blood type?OWhat's the second thing that happens in hemostatsis?forms platelet plugWhat is the function of a (RBC) erythrocyte?transport oxygenWhat leukocyte leukocyte/ (WBC) has active phagocytes during long term infections?monocytesWho allow the clotting of blood?thrombocytes or plateletsWhere are the hair cells?organ of corti (cochlea)Who makes epinephrine?adrenal glandWho makes melatonin?pineal glandWho makes thyroxine and T3?thyroid glandWho makes ADA (antidiuretic) and oxytocin?hypothalamusWho makes GH TSH, ACTH, PPL, FSH and LH?pituitary glandWho makes insulin and glucagon?pancreasWho makes estrogen?ovariesWho makes testosterone?testes