60 terms

ENT 203

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Terms in this set (...)

Lid
roof of the hive
inner cover
ceiling of the hive
Honey super
stores surplus honey for harvesting
Queen excluder
prevents brood rearing in honey super
Blood Box
Raise brood, store honey and pollen for bees
Bottom Board
Floor of the hive
Landing Board
Facilitates foraging
How many frames per brood box?
10 separated by 3/8th inch
Parts of a frame
Top bar, Side bar, bottom bar, wax or plastic foundation
Viel
protects face from stings
Gloves
Protects hands from stings but cause you to be clumsy with bees
Smoker
Pacifies bees by lighting fire in it, the smoke blocks the bees receptors
Hive tool
pry apart hive and frames due to bees sealing it with propolis
Steps for preparation for beekeeping
Avoid perfumes or colognes, hairspray or odiferous shampoo, Remove watches and rings, Put cell phone on 'ringer' and not 'vibrate', Put protective on gear, Light smoker and make sure it doesn't go out
Steps for Opening the Hive
Never stand in front of the hive; always work from the side or back, Give a few puffs of smoke at the entrance and wait 30 seconds, Gently pry apart the lid and inner cover, smoking the bees as needed
Steps for Colony inspection
Pry apart the outer-most frame, lift straight up, and prop on the side to create some working space, Pry apart successive frames, working through each from near to far, Avoiding crushing bees (particularly the queen!) and fast, jerky movement; use calm, methodical motions, Inspect each frame for food (honey and pollen), brood, the queen, and potential problems (e.g., disease, queen cells, laying workers, no eggs, etc...)
Steps for Closing the hive
Put all frames back in the same order and orientation, Remove protective clothing away from the hive
Equation for creation of honey
Sucrose(table sugar) = glucose(blood sugar) + fructose(fruit sugar)
Invertase
enzyme used to break down sucrose to make glucose and fructose
How much water is in honey?
Less than 18.6%
Steps for honey processing
Uncapping knife, tank, flow gate, pail with gate, hand cranked extractor, double sieve, settling tank with gate, bottom table
Parts for commercial extracting
radial extractor, baffle tank, capping spinner, receptacle for capping, uncapper, pump, tanks
Different types of honey
Comb honey, creamed honey
Mead fermentation process
Sugar (glucose) = Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide
Procedure for making mead
1. sanitize equipment, 2. mix honey and water (known as must), 3. pitch yeast, 4. oxygenate must and put into fermenter, 5. Take specific gravity reading with hydromete, 6. Seal fermenter and put on air lock, 7. Let yeast undergo the fermentation process (several weeks), 8. Racking—transfer from fermenter to carboy, 9. Let clear and finish fermenting (a couple of weeks), 10. Bottling—siphon into bottles
Top 3 Uses for Wax
cosmetic industry, candles, wax foundation for beekeepers
Uses for harvested Pollen
Health Supplement, Protein Source, Allergy Relief
Uses for harvested propolis
health products(antimicrobial), cancer treatment, wood varnish
Types of Mead
Traditional, Metheglin, Melomel, Sack, Cyser, Pyment, Braggot
Traditional Mead
honey, water and yeast
Metheglin Mead
traditional mead with added herbs and spices
Melomel
traditional mead with added fruit and juices
Sack Mead
Strong Sweet mead
Cyser
A type of sack mead with added apples or apple juice (creates hard apple cider)
Pyment
A type of sack mead with added grapes or grape juice (creates wine)
Braggot
A type of sack mead with added barley or malted grain (creates beer)
Pollination
the transfer of a plant's male reproductive cells (pollen) to the female reproductive structures of a flower (stigma)
Fertilization
causes seed to set, then fruit develops around the
seeds
primary insect pollinator in modern agriculture
Honey Bees
Migratory beekeeping in the ancient world
Beekeepers in Lower Egypt shipped their hives up the
Nile rive in October on rafts to take advantage of earlier
blooms, then moving the down the river as the spring
progressed.
Probably an Ancient practice of migratory beekeeping
When to move hives
It is best to move them at night when the bees are all in the hive
If the crop is approx. ______ in bloom, they will focus on it
because of floral constancy
10%
How many number of hives per acre?
1 per acre; large fields need to have a lot of bees
Crops that are not pollinated by bees
Staple crops; potatoes, corn, wheat and rice (wind pollinated)
Fruits that need bees
apples, apricots, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, Muskmelon, Honeydew, Watermelon, Grape, Avocado, Pear, Strawberry, Peach
Honey bees are responsible for
__________ of everything that
people eat every day
one-third
Vegetables that need bees
Asparagus Broccoli Carrot Cucumber Squash Celery Onion Pumpkin
Field crop that needs bees
Alfalfa
Cotton
Peanut
Soybean
Sunflower
Native bees and native flowers
native bees are much more effective at pollinating flowers, particularly native flowers, however, some pollinators, such as bumble bees, can pollinate certain crops honey bees cannot
Honey bees and greenhouses
Honey bees are not amenable to greenhouse pollination
Most native bees are...
Most native bees are solitary and not colonial,
so they rarely have the populations sufficient for
large-scale pollination
Varroa Mite
Introduced from Asia where it evolved with
the Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana
Symptoms: presence of mites, deformed wings
Natural Resistance to Varroa Mite
None, Since our bees didn't
coevolve with the mites, they
have no natural immunity
What damage has the varroa mite done?
Since their introduction in the mid-1980s, they have
almost wiped out all feral bee colonies
If beekeepers don't take action, the bees will succumb
to the mites in 1-2 years
Treatments for varroa mites
Synthetic pesticides are imbedded into plastic strips
The strips are then hung between the frames in the brood chamber
Overuse and abuse of
chemical treatments
Beekeepers have continuously used the same
chemical treatments for varroa mites and have
prophalactically applied antibiotics for AFB
Resistance in Varroa Mites
As pesticides and antibiotics are applied to colonies, particularly at sub-lethal doses, it kills the susceptible pests but not the tolerant ones.
Over time, there is a higher proportion of tolerant pests that eventually become resistant, making the treatment useless.
Grafting
physical transfer of worker larvae into queen cells (queen rearing)
Necessary requirements for rearing queens
1 No laying queen (=no queen pheromone)
2. Nurse bees (to feed queen larvae royal jelly)
3. Food (pollen and nectar for nurse bees to make royal jelly)
Mating nuclei ("nucs")
small hives used for mating queens