principle structures of the female reproductive system?
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia
what are the steps of oogenesis?
1. formation of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles; 2. ovulation; 3. formation and degeneration of the corpus luteum
what does secretion of GnRH trigger?
a rise in FSH and LH production, and beginning of another cycle
what does each uterine tube consist of?
an expanded funnel, the infundibulum, with fimbrae (projections); an ampulla; an isthmus; and an intramural part that opens into the uterine cavity
what lines the uterine tube?
ciliated and nonciliated simple columnar epithelial cells, which aid in the transport of materials
what must happen for fertilization to occur?
the ovum must encounter spermatozoa during the first 12-24 hours of its passage from the infundibulum to the uterus
what does the uterus do?
provides mechanical protection and nutritional support to the developing embryo
what stabilizes the uterus?
the broad ligament, uterosacral ligaments, round ligaments, and cardinal ligaments
gross divisions of the uterus?
body, fundus, isthmus, cervix, external os, uterine cavity, cervical canal, and internal os
describe the typical uterine cycle?
1. 28 days; 2. begins with onset of mensus and destruction of the functional zone of endometrium
what happens after mensus?
the proliferative phase begins and the functional zone undergoes repair and thickens
functions of vagina?
1. serves as a passageway for menstrual fluids; 2. receives the penis during sexual intercourse; 3. forms the lower portion of the birth canal
where are the mammary glands?
they lie in the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin of the chest and are the site of milk production
what stimulates milk production?
a combination of hormones, including prolactin, growth hormone, and human placental lactogen
when do mammary glands develop?
during pregnancy under the influence of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and human placental lactogen (HPL)
what does placenta function as?
a temporary endocrine organ, producing several important hormones and facilitate gas and nutrient exchange
what is placenta actively secreting by the time of corpus luteum degeneration?
estrogen and progesterone