Haitian Revolution

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Saint domingue is located
on the island hispanola which is now known as Haiti
francois makandal
led first failed slave revolt in 1750s
influences from revolution
france national convention puts end to slavery in colonies
declaration of the rights of man and citizen
francois toussaint l'overture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution and fought for equality. Was gifted in Military and turned the slave society into an independent black state.
He switched alliances between Spain to France according to convenience, then turned to slave side.
Died of malnutrition in France after being captured by Napoleon when he discovered T.L. named himself governor of Haiti for life.
reaction to toussaint l'overture
british send troops to stifle revolution and overtake territory
national convention under robespierre abolish slavery but order is ignored so l'overture allies with rebels and french gov
successful rebellion
napolen ends revolution in saint domingue
as first consul he repels the abolishment
sends troops to end revolt
l'overture captured and brought to france and killed
temporary control from french army
final stage of revolution
army loses control again bc of yellow fever
jean jacques dessalines leads rebel army to defeat french forces
dessalines takes control of saint domingue and expels all europeans
proclaim independence jan 1,1804 renamed haiti dessalines becomes emperor of haiti
How many slaves where there in Saint Domingue?
500,000 slaves
How may free men of color where there in Saint Domingue?
28-30,000 free non-whites.
How many whites where there in Saint Domingue?
40,000 whites
When did the Haitian Revolution begin?
August 1791 with first slave uprising in the North
Who where to leaders of the Haitian Revolution?
Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessaline. Both former slaves & Petion and Christophe
Who was Vincent Ogé?
Free man of color who returned to Haiti in 1790 from France, got Enlightenment ideas. He was the first leader of the slave revolts starting in 1790.
Why did Vincent Ogé revolt?
Because the governor of Saint Domingue ignored that all proprietors where active citizens. however, was unsuccesful
What happened when Ogé's revolt was unsuccessful?
Ogé was captured and executed.
Who was Boukman Dutty?
He was a voodoo priest in Haiti. Haitian slave who conducted a ceremony in which freedom was assured.
What did Boukman Dutty's sermon cause?
A Slave uprising in August 1791, in the Northen part of Saint Domingue.
Who was Sonthonax?
French Commissioner who abolished slavered in Haiti in 1793. He was a french abolitionist in control of 7,000 French troops in Saint Domingue. Sent with 7,000 troops to control slave uprising after first slave revolt in August 1791.
How does Napoleon feel about Toussaint L'Ouverture being governor.
Not happy because he looses 500,000 slaves and colony becomes less profitable.
How is Toussaint L'Ouverture captured?
Charles Leclrer tricks him into thinking that they will negotiate and sends him back to France.
Who took charge of rebel army after Toussaint L'Ouverture was captured?
Dessaline
What happens in May 1802
Napoleon signs law that reinstates slavery where i has not disappeared.
Why did Dessaline take up arms against Leclerc?
He found out that other island around La Hispañola had slavery reinstated by the French.
Yellow fever
this caused the death to leclerc. it also caused death to many of his men, to which Rochambeua replaced him as leader
How many of Leclerc's troops where affected by the yellow fever.
32,000.
24,000 died
8,000 very wounded
Why is Dessaline able to beat Rochambeau?
Because Rochambeau was ignored by Napoleon and didn't have enough resources.
What does Dessaline do after defeating Rochambeau?
He declares independence for Saint Domingue in Januery 1st of 1804
When does Saint Domingue declare its independence?
In January 1st of 1804
Did the French recognize Haiti's independence when it was declared?
No it was only recognized in 1825.
What happened to Haiti while it wasn't recognized by France.
France wasn't allowing it to trade, making bad economic issues
Why did Haiti owe France 90 million francs of debt.
For property loss. (land and slaves).
When was the debt to France paid off?
1947