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Terms in this set (79)
a group or chain of islands
Balance of Power
A political policy in which countries attempt to preserve peace by keeping an equal military and economic status
A promise made by the British Prime Minister Balfour to create a homeland for the Jewish people
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native African. This began the process of imperializing Africa.
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa compromised of all the South African colonies.
Dutch descended colonists living in South Africa
(1900) A rebellion by the people of China to end foreign domination
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most Indian during the period of Imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
The policy of maintaining colonies as a source of raw materials and new markets. Practiced during old and new imperialism
A document detailing the fundamental laws of a country or organization
A cold war policy that called for containing communism to areas already under its influence. The policy was proposed by U.S Presidents Henry Truman.
The spreading of ideas through contact such as trade or war
Dutch East Indies
A group of islands in South East Asia claimed by the Dutch during Imperialism
European Community (European Union)
Economic union between countries in Europe for mutual gain. Originally formed in 1951 as the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), it late became the European Community in 1967, then the European Union in 1991.
A policy that guaranteed European citizens in China were only subject to the laws of their own nation and could only be tried by their own courts
Area of southwest Asia controlled by France during Imperialism. Includes Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
A imperialistic system founded by Japan consisting of other Asian countries during the early 20th century. Japan reduced its members to puppet nations, taking their raw materials and using them as new markets
The attempted genocide of European Jew, Gypsies, mentally retarded, homosexuals, and others by Nazi Germany during WWII
The complete control of a weaker nation's social, economic, and political life by a stronger nation
In the second half of the 19th century, it was the fundamental change in the way goods were produced through the use of machines, capital, and the centralization of work forces in factories. It completely altered the social, economic, and political structure of most of Europe, Japan, and the US
The change to industrial methods of production such as the use factories
Joint Stock Company
A company that sells shares to investors who share in the profits and losses
A group of communists guerrillas in Cambodia during the late 20th century, led by Pol Pot, that gained control of Cambodia after the withdrawal of American troops from the Vietnam War. The war initiated a reign of terror, killing over a million people to remove all western influence from the country. This gross violation of human rights ended when Vietnam invaded and occupied the country in 1979. In the 1990s, the United Nations negotiated a peace settlement, and began the democratic process in Cambodia.
(1835-1909) King of Belgium who began imperialistic trade inside of Africa which resulted in the Scramble for Africa
(1865-1936) British writer and poet. His poem The White Man's Burden became a popular justification for European Imperialism
A geopolitical designation for Central and South America and the Caribbean Islands which were settled by the Spanish
League of Nations
A multinational peace keeping organization which began as an idea of U.S President Woodrow Wilson following the first World War. The Treaty of Versailles created a League with over 40 countries joining. The U.S was not one of them. It was to be an international body that would settle future problems through negotiations instead of warfare. The member nations were to work cooperatively through economic and military means to enforce its decisions. However, since the U.S did not join, the league never achieved its intentions. While the League did attempt to halt the aggressiveness of Hitler's Germany, their inherent weakness prevented them from stopping World War II.
A territory that was given to a European nation to administer by the League of Nations following the end of WWI.
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949-1976
An economy based on free trade and supply and demand
(1852-1912) Emperor of Japan from 1867-1912. He was responsible for the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the rapid modernization and industrialization of Japan
The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports. Colonies are instrumental in this policy as they supply their parent nations with raw materials that are used to produced finished goods, and then exported back to the colonies. Colonies not only served as a source for the raw materials, but also as an exclusive market for the parent country.
Geopolitical designation of the area stretching from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the western side of the Indian subcontinent. Consists of countries such as Israel, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt.
Middle Kingdom (China)
Term that ancient China used to refer to themselves. They believed they were the center of the Earth, or the Middle Kingdom
the armed forces of a nation
A person who spreads the teachings of a religion
(1823) a political policy of the US by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference
Pride in one's country or culture, often excessive in nature
Concept of John Locke's that states all people have the right to life, liberty, and property
Name of German National Socialist Party, which gained control of Germany in 1933 under the leadership of Adolf Hitler
New Economic Policy
An economic policy of Vladimir Lenin's in the Soviet Union where government controlled most banks and industry, but did allow some private ownership
A policy of economic, political, and social of one country by another. Industrialized countries sought control of other countries for raw materials and new markets
The control of one country by another through the stationing of military troops and military government
Open Door Policy
A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism
In the early 19th century, Great Britain began importing Opium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony of India, into China. Chinese officials attempted to ban the importation of the highly addictive Opium, but ultimately failed. The British declared war on China a series of conflicts called the Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed them to calling victory and subject the Chinese to series of unequal treaties
A canal that crosses the isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Built by the US between 1904-1914
A form of government where the citizens elect members to represent them in parliament, or legislative assembly
(1794-1858) A commodore and US Navy officer who is responsible for opening Japan to trade and imperialism
A country or region that is controlled by a more powerful country
Various materials found in nature used in manufacturing such as wood, coal, and oil
A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature
(1853-1902) A British statesman who was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world's diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region. His master plan was to establish a Cape to Cairo railroad line that would link British colonial interests in Africa between Egypt and the Cape Colony in southern Africa. the Boers, however, provided heavy and eventually armed resistance to this proposal. After authorizing an aggressive invasion of the Boer Republic of Transvall which ended poorly, Rhodes was removed from office. However, the seeds of the Boer War had been sown.
A political policy of the United States by the President Theodore Roosevelt that states only the United States could intervene in the affairs of South America
(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious
The ritual suicide of a wife after her husband's death in Hindu/Indian culture
Scramble For Africa
Term given for the rapid invasion of Africa by the various European powers. This began imperialism in Africa
A soldier working for the British East India Company, recruited from the native population of India
(1857-1859) A revolt by the Hindu and Muslim soldiers of the British East India Company. It began as a result of the rifle cartridges that were distributed to the sepoys had to be bitten to remove a cover before being inserted into a gun. Rumors circulated among the Sepoys who were mot supposed to eat beef. Thus, the Sepoys revolted against the British army, which eventually ended the conflict through use of force. This resulted in the British government officially taking control of India, making it a colony.
(1787-1828) During Shaka's rule, the Zulu broadened their land and grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China
(1894-1895) Japan's imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japanese Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate
A person forced to work for another with no payment or freedom to seek work elsewhere. A slave can be bought and sold
The buying and selling of people for the purpose of slavery
A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in a society and wealth is determined by their genetic background
The right of a country to govern itself without interference
(1898) A war between the United States and Spain over the control of Cuba.The US won and gained independence for Cuba and control of the Philippines
Spheres of Influence
An area of one country under the control of another. In China, these areas guaranteed specific trading privileges to each imperialist nation within its respective sphere
A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today
Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen)
(1866-1925) Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place.
(1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners
Treaty of Nanjing
(1842) An unequal treaty between Great Britain and China resulting from the Opium War. The treaty stated that China was to reimburse Britain for incurred fighting the war. The Chinese were forced to open several ports to British trade, provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong, and grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China.
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) The treaty that ended the Sino-Japense War. It granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate
Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes, and the cause of much war and strife in modern Africa
A treaty forced upon a country being dominated by another during Imperialism. These treaties often gave the imperialist nation the ability to do whatever they needed to do in pursuit of profit
An international body composed of many countries that seeks to promote peace, prosperity, and cooperation around the world. It was formed in 1945 at the end of World War II
Vietnam War (/Conflict)
A war in Vietnam, first between the French and Vietnamese, as France was attempting to hold onto its colony. The second war was between the U.S and the communist forces of North Vietnam, as the U.S was attempting t keep South Vietnam free from communism. The North Vietnamese eventually won, forcing the United States to withdraw.
To adopt western ideas and culture
The White Man's Burden
A poem by Rudyard Kipling written in 1899. It is also the name given to the idea that the culture of the native populations where European imperialism was occurring were inferior to western nations. Some interpreted Kipling's poem to mean that it was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture and sensibility to the savage native populations that were encountered in far off lands.
the name of a tribe of South African people who live in the northern part of Natal. They were the dominate tribe in the late 19th century when European Imperialism began. They resisted both the Boers and the British, but ultimately lost their homeland and freedom by 1879.
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