deals with a group of individuals of the same species
example of population genetics
group of humans
deals with one individual
example of organismal genetics
deals with molecules that genes are made of
example of molecular genetics
one gene in a human
what are the three levels of genetics
molecular, population, organismal
information storage molecules
aka recipe, which is in each dna molecule and codes for specific sequence of amino acids
a cell of nucleus that contains 2 complete sets of chromosomes
a cell or nucleus having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
who figured out the basic rules of genetics
a gene mutation may result in what three outcomes?
1. harmful protein 2. same or similar protein 3. a protein that is better than the original
each nucleotide consists of which three componenets
1. phosphate 2. sugar 3. base
in dna a always bonds with
in rna a always bonds with
c always bonds with
when the dna letters are copied into rna letters, when the dna molecule produces a messanger rna molecule
when the mRNA molecule is translated into a different language, amino acid language
explain 2 structural ways in which dna is different than rna
dna is usually a double helix, rna is a single 2. dna has thymine and rna has uracil
all life as we know it shares the same translating dictionary, what is it called and how does it work?
human genome and it involves sequencing multiple variations of each gene
what does gm stand for
what is gene therapy
the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes in order to treat disease
what disease was gene therapy recently used to cure?> how???
severe combined immune deficiency. how= a virus was used to insert a working copy of the gene into the boys bone marrow cells, which were reimplanted in his body
what is the human genome project?
an international scientific project that seeks to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up dna and to identify and map the approx. 20,000 t0 25,000 genes in the human genome.
how do you sequence a genome, what are some steps involved?
take a block of dna and cleave it to produce smaller fragments. each fragment is sequenced then computer programs align the overlapping parts of each fragment to reassemble 1 large sequence for the entire block.
what is dna fingerprinting
a tool used in forensic science to identify the perpatrator in criminal cases
what is gel electrophoresis and how does it work
used to identify perps dna in crimes and you do this by comparing dna from accused with the dna found at the crime scene. this process utalizes a simple small box with a thin layer of fel made from agarose, load wells with dna, test it, etc.
who did the dna belong to in the experiment
was the dna contaminated with the victims dna
the original dna molecule is unzipped and new nucleotides are added to the exposed bases following the contempotary base paring rule. two dna molecules are made that are exact copies of the original
what are some stop codons
UAA, UAE, UGA
is it possible for two or more codons to code for the same amino acid? if so give an example
yes, CGU and AGA both code for the amino acids arginine
if one nucleotide were transcribed incorrectly or omitted, how would it affect protein structure as a whole?
it would affect it greatly, a single nucleotide mistake may result in the wrong amino acid and this can reduce or even destroy the function of the entire protein.
what impact might gm plants have on the environmanent
they might create super weeds, and the irreversible intro of altered dna into a natural ecosystem
which cells contain our human genome
they all do, except the rare occassion with a cell without a nucleus akak red blood cells
what do our genes code for
mRNA transcripts which are then translated into proteins