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the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources
defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and resources needed to attain them
assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, and allocating resources to departments
monitoring employees' activities, keeping the organization on track toward its goals, and making corrections as needed
the use of minimal resources- raw materials, money, and people- to produce a desired volume of output
the organization's ability to attain its goals by using resources in an efficient and effective manner
the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its parts
the ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member
a manager who is at the top of the organizational hierarchy and is responsible for the entire organization
a manager who works at the middle levels of the organization and is responsible for major departments
a person responsible for coordinating the activities of several departments on a full-time basis for the completion of a specific project; also, refers to a manager responsible for a temporary work project that involves the participation of people from various functions and levels of the organization
a manager who is at the first or second management level and is directly responsible for overseeing the production of goods and services
a manager who is responsible for a department that performs a single functional task and has employees with similar training and skills
a manager who is responsible for several departments that perform different functions
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