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the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources


defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and resources needed to attain them


assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, and allocating resources to departments


the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve the organization's goals


monitoring employees' activities, keeping the organization on track toward its goals, and making corrections as needed


a social entity that is goal directed and deliberately structured


the degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal


the use of minimal resources- raw materials, money, and people- to produce a desired volume of output


the organization's ability to attain its goals by using resources in an efficient and effective manner

conceptual skill

the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its parts

human skill

the ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member

technical skill

the understanding of and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks

top managers

a manager who is at the top of the organizational hierarchy and is responsible for the entire organization

middle managers

a manager who works at the middle levels of the organization and is responsible for major departments

project manager

a person responsible for coordinating the activities of several departments on a full-time basis for the completion of a specific project; also, refers to a manager responsible for a temporary work project that involves the participation of people from various functions and levels of the organization

first-line manager

a manager who is at the first or second management level and is directly responsible for overseeing the production of goods and services

functional managers

a manager who is responsible for a department that performs a single functional task and has employees with similar training and skills

general managers

a manager who is responsible for several departments that perform different functions


a set of expectations for one's behavior

interim managers

a manager who is not affiliated with a specific organization but works on a project-by-project basis or provides expertise to organizations in a specific area

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