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IM/SQ Injections

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Tip of Syringe
Attaches to the needle
Barrel
outside part on which the scales are printed
Plunger
fits inside the barrel
standard hypodermic syringe
scale is in milliliter, sizes 2, 2.5, 3, and 5mL sizes
insulin syringe
scale is in units, the only syringe to be used with insulin
tuberculin syringe
narrow syringe, calibrated to the tenths and hundredths of a milliliter. up to 1ml
Luer Lok Syringe
has a tip that requires the needle to be twisted onto it to avoid accidental removal of the needle.
Hub
part of a needle that fits onto the syringe
Shaft
part of a needle that is attached to the hub also called the cannula
Bevel
the slanted part of a needle at the tip.
Gauge
diameter of the shaft, gauge varies from 18-28. The larger the number the smaller the diameter of the shaft.
24-26 gauge, 3/8-5/8 in
Needle size for SQ injections
20-22 gauge, 1-1 1/2 in
Needle size for IM injections
one-handed scoop method
procedure to reduce the risk of puncture injury
passive safety syringe
the needle retracts immediately into the barrel after injection
active safety syringe
the nurse must activate the safety device
ampule
a glass container usually designed to hold a single does of a drug.
vial
small glass bottle with a sealed rubber cap.
filter needle
prevents any glass or rubber particles from being drawn into the syringe from a vial or ampule
hand hygiene
first step in all procedures
Intradermal Injection
administration of a drug into the dermal layer of the skin just beneath the epidermis 0.1mL with a TB syringe
Inner lower arm, upper chest, back beneath the scapulae
common sites for intradermal injections.
Outer aspect of the upper arms, anterior aspect of the thighs
Common sites for subcutaneous injections
25 gauge, 5/8 in needle, 45 degree angle
SQ injection for adults of normal weight
25 gauge, 1/2 in needle, 45 degree angle
SQ injection for a child
1 inch of tissue
45 degree angle used
2 inches of tissue
90 degree angle used
lipoatrophy
This is a loss of subcutaneous fat, appears as slight dimpling or pitting of subcutaneous fat. Use of human insulin helps prevent this
3mL
amount of fluid able to be injected in to an adult Intramuscularly with developed muscles
1-2mL
recommend amount of fluid able to be injected in to an adult Intramuscularly with less developed muscles
0.5-1mL
volume of medication to use in the deltoid muscle for IM medications
Ventrogluteal site
IM, in the hip, safest gluteal, site places the medication into the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles, which are free of major nerves and blood vessels, site for im injection on the buttocks
Vastus lateralis site
uses the vastus lateralis muscle one of the muscles in the quadriceps group of the outer thigh, large nerves and blood vessel are absent in this area which makes it a safer site for administering injections to infants and small children and clients who are thin or debilitated with poorly developed gluteal muscles
Dorsogluteal site
the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks is a common location for intramuscular injections. this site is avoided in clients under the age of 3 because their muscle is not sufficiently developed. if not identified correctly, can cause damage to the sciatic nerve.
Deltoid Site
injection in the lateral aspect of the upper arm; least used because it is a smaller muscle than others; used only for adults
Z-track method
Injection technique by stretching the skin slightly to one side, approximately 1 inch. Then inject the medication. Wait approximately 10 seconds and remove the needle. Allow the skin to return to the normal position without massaging the injection site. It is usually used for medications that are particularly irritating to the tissue.