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26 terms

Multicellularity

chapter 10
STUDY
PLAY
extracellular matrix
network of material secreted from the cells forming a complex meshwork outside of cells
adhesive
protein of ECM
fibronectin and laminin, have multiple binding site so they are able to bind to extracellular proteins as well as to cell surface
structural
protein of ECM
collagen provides tensile strength
elastin provides elasticity
collagen
at least 27 different type of collagens in humans
25% of total protein is collage
75% of protein in mammalian skin
assemble into fibrils
polysaccarides in animal ECM
after protein, 2nd major component
highly negative change
GAGs= most abundant in vertebrates
two GAG examples
chondroitin sulfate-cartilage
hyaluronic acid- skin, eye joint fluid
cell junctions
adhere cells to each other and to the EMC
anchoring junctions
(animal cells)
attach cells to each other and the ECM
rely on cell adhesion molecules (CAM)
adherins junction
use cadherins organized in bands to actin
desmosomes
cadherin, all riveting to intermeidate filaments (IF)
hemidesmosomes
integrin to IF
focal adhesion
bound to actin
Cadherins
CAMs that create cell to cell junctions
require Ca2+
homolyric bonding
by expressing only certain types of cadherins, each cell will only bind to other expressing the same type
integrins
group of cell surface receptor proteins
2nd type of CAMs
do not require Ca2+
tight junctions in animals
occluding junctions
forms tight seal between adjacent cells
made by occludin and claudin
gap junctions in animals
small gap between plasma membranes of cells at junction
6 connexin proteins align with 6 from adjacent cell to form connexon
connexon
A channel formed in a gap junction by the attachment of six connexin proteins on one cell to six connexin proteins on another
middle lamella in plants
First layer to form when cells dividing and Cement cell walls of adjacent cells together
plasmodesmata in plants
Plasmodesmata link nearly all plant cells together, this allows the free exchange of necessary materials like water, RNA molecules, small solutes, and some small proteins
6 basic cell processes
1. Cell division
2. Cell growth
3. Differentiation
4. Migration
5. Apoptosis
6. Cell connections
4 general types of animal tissue
1. Epithelial tissue
2. Connective tissue
3. Nervous tissue
4. Muscle tissue
Epithelial tissue
Cells joined together forming continuous sheets to cover or line body surfaces
Connective tissue
Support body or connect tissues
connective in animal
ground in plant
Nervous tissue
Receives, generates and conducts electrical signals
Muscle tissue
Generates force that facilitates movement