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In 2009, the incarceration rate for African American males in state and federal prisons was ____times the rate for whites.


Among Hispanics, slightly more than half self-identify:

By citing their country of origin

The development of theoretical studies of race, ethnicity, and crime

has been discouraged by the extreme sensitivity of the subject

Traditionally, race has referred to major biological divisions of mankind distinguished by color of skin, color and texture of hair, bodily proportions, and other physical features.


Discrimination is made illegal by the equal protection provision of the

14th Amendment

_______discrimination occurs only in certain situations


Discrimination is a difference based on ______ without reference to an individual's behavior or qualifications

differential treatment of groups

The basic premise of _______theory is that the law is used to maintain the power of a society's dominant group and control the individuals who threaten that power.


It is difficult to make useful comparisons of the criminal justice experiences of different racial and ethnic groups because:

there has been little comparative research

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 covers employment discrimination by:

private employers and government agencies

Experts regard the concept of race as:

primarily a social construct

More than half of the Hispanic population in the US lives in:

California and Texas

The labels applied to groups are

usually applied by the politically and culturally dominant group

_______ discrimination occurs at all stages of the CJ system, in all places, and at all times


The Uniform Crime Reports data are ____ with respect to many important issues related to race, ethnicity, and crime.


Members of NCVS selected households are contacted either in person or by phone every____months for____years


The information on offenders gleaned from the UCR is incomplete and ______ because it includes only offenders whose crimes result in arrest.

Potentially misleading

The most systematic source of victimization information is the


Youth gangs initially appeared in the U.S. :

after the Revolutionary War

NCVS interviews are conducted at 6-month intervals


Early self-report surveys conducted before 1980 found

little difference in deliquency rates between African Americans and whites

Jacobs argued that a hate crime statute creates a law that is unlikely to deter and that its implementation

will widen social division

Our perceptions of crime are shaped to a large extent by the highly publicized crimes featured on the nightly news and sensationalized in newspapers.


Household victimization rates are highest for______in suburban areas.


Arrests of Native Americans made by tribal police are

not recorded in UCR data

The accuracy of self-report surveys is influenced by:


Victimization surveys reveal that victims often fail to report crimes to the police because of the belief that:


Household victimization rates are highest for______ in urban areas

African Americans

The National Crime Victimization Survey is conducted by the:

Bureau of Justice Statistics

The race and ethnicity of the household is recorded as:

the race and ethnicity of the adult completing the household questionnaire

The crimes that receive the most attention from the media, from politicians, and from criminal justice policymakers, are:

street crimes such as murder, robbery, and rape

Analysis of all data sources reveals that crime is predominantly:

the intraracial event

The NCVS survey sample is chosen on the basis of:

the most recent census data

White ethnic gangs characterized by an emphasis on satanic rituals are called:


The practice by banks and savings and loan companies of refusing to offer mortgages in poor and minority neighborhoods was known as:


How much a person or family earns in any given period is called:


Historically, many property owners in the North adopted restrictive covenants that prohibited the sale of property to

African Americans or Jews

Official arrest data indicate that involvement in crime peaks at:

18 for violent crimes and 16 for property crimes

The most disturbing aspect of the poverty data is the number of _______living below the poverty line.


The term secondary labor market refers to:

available low-paying jobs with limited fringe benefits and uncertain prospects for the future

Job growth over the past 20 years has been strongest in

suburban areas outside the central cities

__________involves rejection of both the goals and accepted means of achieving them


___________theory holds that the administration of criminal justice reflects the unequal distribution of power in society.


The unemployment rate for Hispanics of Mexican and Puerto Rican origin is consistently higher than for those of ______origin.


The median net worth of whites is ___times that of Hispanics


________involves acceptance of society's goals but rejection of the accepted means of attaining them


Sociologists and psychologists generally agree that ______ is the primary unit for transmitting values to children

the family

American metropolitan communities are characterized by strong patterns of

residential segregation

The growth of political and civil rights did not necessarily address ________inequality.


The supply-side economic policies of the 1980s were referred to as:


Which of the following is NOT part of a community's social structure?

The rate of population fluctuations

In 1968, the __________Commission warned that "our Nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white - separate and unequal."


The official unemployment rate is _____ for teenagers than for adults

much higher

The peak years of criminal activity are for people between the ages of ____and ____.


The federal government first developed an official definition of poverty in:


Sociologists and psychologists generally agree that ______ is the primary unit for transmitting values to children

The Family

The US Supreme Court barred imprisonment of a person for any offense unless they are represented by counsel in:

Argersinger v. Hamlin (1972)

There is evidence that judges in some jurisdictions continue to take race into account in deciding on the type and amount of bail.


The emphasis of bail reform efforts in the 1970s was:

preventive detention

Racial minorities are at a disadvantage in court both because of their race and because they are more likely than whites to be poor.


The US Supreme Court applied the right to counsel at all critical stages in the criminal justice process, not just at trial, in:

Mempa v. Rhay (1967)

Prosecutors can reject charges as felonies but prosecute them as misdemeanors


The second bail reform movement occurred during the:


The _____________ found that the majority of defendants released on their own recognizance did appear for trial.

Manhattan Bail Project

The US Supreme Court held that the decision to prosecute may not be deliberately based upon an unjustifiable standard such as race, religion, or other arbitrary classification in:

Bordenkircher v. Haye (1978)

The us Supreme Court required that appointment of counsel for all indigent defendants in federal criminal cases in:

Johnson v. Zerbst (1938)

The US Supreme Court extended to the states the requirement to appoint for all indigent defendants in:

Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

The US Supreme Court held that due process of law required appointment of counsel for young, inexperienced, illiterate, and indigent defendants in capital cases in:

Powell v. Alabama (1932)

The firsts bail reform movement occurred during the


The emphasis of bail reform efforts in the 1960s was

reduction of pretrial detention

The US Supreme Court held that defendants are entitled to effective assistance of counsel in:

Strickland v. Washington (1984)

Which of the following is cited in the text as a serious problem related to policing on Native American lands?


In the 1970s, in response to protests from civil rights groups, police departments began to replace the fleeing felon rule in favor of the _________rule.

defense of life

There are approximately _______ separate Native American law enforcement agencies in the U.S.


For police officers, derogatory language is a _______.

control technique

African Americans consistently report believing that police treat African Americans:


The so-called _____________in Los Angeles in 1943 involved attacks on Hispanic men by police and by white Navy personnel on shore leave.

Zoot Suit Riot

The term police brutality is:

a political slogan with no precise meaning

Over the past 30 years, public attitudes toward the police have been:

remarkably stable

The FBI does not report arrest data on:


Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as a factor that helps explain the patterns of interactions between Hispanics and the police?

Hispanics' unwillingness to oppose criminal elements within their communities who do not want a police presence in the neighborhoods.

Which of the following does NOT determine a Native American tribal police agency' jurisdiction or lack of jurisdiction in a specific case?

tribal affiliation of the victim

Most police corruption involves___________.

vice activities

The term "driving while black" was coined to describe the police practice of:

racial profiling

The changing demographic face of the United States because of ___________presents a special challenge for the police


The vast majority of all Americans express __________the police

confidence in

Most sentencing research examines the sentences imposed on offenders convicted of:


The term _________characterizes that segment of the deviant population that is viewed as particularly threatening and dangerous.

social dynamite

Concerns about the changes in the racial/ethnic makeup of a community, coupled with stereotypes linking race and ethnicity to drug use and drug-related crime and violence, may lead to _________among sentencing officials.

unconscious racism

Evidence concerning the impact of state sentencing reforms is:


Under ___________ sentencing rules, sentences were tailored to the individual offender


According to Zatz, the issue of ________ in sentencing "may well have been the major research inquiry for studies of sentencing in the 1970s and 1980s."

racial disparity

The _________suggests that jurors deviate from their fact-finding mission in cases in which the evidence against the defendant is weak or contradictory.

liberation hypothesis

The contradictory findings of early research exploring the effect of race on sentencing resulted in part from a/an __________of conflict theory.


There are ____types of evidence of racial disparity in sentencing


Structured sentencing proposals seek to__________the discretion of sentencing judges


A defendant is entitled to a jury composed in whole or in part of persons of his own race.


The phrase "playing the race card" refers to


In ______, the USSC struck down as "purposeful discrimination" one state's rejection of African Americans for jury duty because they were "not intelligent, experienced, or moral enough to serve as jurors."

Neal v. Delaware (1882)

In _________, the USSC reversed a death sentence murder conviction because the district attorney asked the jury commissioner to limit the numberof African Americans and women on the master lists from which potential jurors were chosen.

Amadeo v. Zant (1988)

The USSC first addressed racial experience in jury selection in:

Strauder v. West Virginia (1880)

The USSC's ruling in _______rejected the systematic exclusion requirement articulated in Swain v. Alabama (1965):

Batson v. Kentucky (1986)

In _______, the USSC ruled a Georgia county's practice of putting the names of white potential jurors on white cards and African American potential jurors on yellow cards, then "randomly" drawing cards to determine who would be summoned for jury duty, as unconstitutional.

Avery v. Georgia (1953)

Many states obtain the names of potential jurors from

All options are correct?????

In ________, the USSC held that, in assessing the racial neutrality of a prosecutor's peremptory challenge, the trial court was required to evaluate the genuineness of the prosecutor's explanation, not its reasonableness.

Purkett v. Elem (1995)

In _______, the USSC struck down the "random" selection of jurors from tax books in which the names of white taxpayers were in one section and the names of African American taxpayers were in another


__________banned imposing the death penalty on a defendant convicted of rape.

Coker v. Georgia (1977)

__________banned execution of those who were under age 18 at the time of their crime.

Roper v. Simmons (2005)

__________banned executing the mentally handicapped.

Atkins v. Virginia (2002)

In 2003, the governor of ________ commuted the sentences of all of the state's death row inmates to life in prison because of his concerns for systemic error.


Cruel and unusual punishments are prohibited by the _______Amendment to the US Constitution


______times as many whites attend college as are under correctional supervision


Less than ____percent of white males are under correctional supervision


The decision to revoke parole is:


The decision to release a prison inmate on discretionary parole is made by:

a parole board

Nearly _____percent of African American males are under correctional supervision.


Among ________, juvenile property crime victimization rates do not vary significantly from adult victimization rates


Data on homicide offenders reveal that roughly _____percent of all homicides are committed by offenders known to the victim.


Information concerning the racial and ethnic trends in victimization for juveniles is:


Juvenile arrests for violent crimes declined _____percent between 1994 and 2003.


In general, _________crime victimization rates are higher for younger age groups than for older age groups.


Juvenile justice officials are more concerned about rehabilitation than:


Because the juvenile justice system espouses the philosophy of parens patriae, it is more _____than the adult system.


The small racial differences in outcomes at the initial stages of the process that accumulate and become more pronounced as minority youths are processedfurther into the juvenile justice system are known as:

compound risk

The number of juveniles arrested increased _____percent between 1985 and 1994


Because the juvenile justice system espouses the philosophy of parens patriae, it is less ______than the adult system.


Data on _________victimization rates broken down by age, gender, and race reveal that young African American males are particularly at risk.


The NCVS defines juvenile as youth aged:


The calculated likelihood that a youth at one stage in the juvenile justice process would reach the next stage is called:

transitional probability

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention report "Juvenile Victims of Property Crime," stated that ________juveniles had been the victim of a property crime.

one of every six

The number of juveniles arrested declined _____percent between 1994 and 2003


The United States Supreme Court ruled in _______that waiver hearings must measure up to "the essentials of due process and fair treatment."

Kent v. United States (1966)

In the late 1980s, _________became the first state to create a computerized database of suspected gang members.


Data on homicide offenders reveal that offending peaks at around age:


The proportion of the total population younger than age 18 that reached each stage in the juvenile justice process is called

compound probability

Juvenile arrests for violent crimes increased ____percent between 1985 and 1994.



a classification of people based on physical and biological characteristics such as the color of skin, hair, and eyes.


an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties

Social construct

a concept that recognises that people have different views based on their social circumstances and ways of seeing, interpreting, interrelating and interacting with their environment

Legal consciousness

-the sum of views and ideas expressing the attitude of people toward law, legality, and justice and their concept of what is lawful and unlawful

Systematic discrimination

different service/treatment due to race; schools receive less funding that have more minority populations than others

Institutionalized discrimination

the persistence of discrimination in social institutions that is not necessarily recognized by everybody as discrimination

Contextual discrimination

describes a siutation in which racial minorites are treated more harshly at some points and in some places in the criminal justice system but no differently that whites at other points and in other places

Individual discrimination

harmful action directed intentionally, on a one-to-one basis, by a member of a dominant group against a member of a minority group

Pure justice

no discrimination at any time or in any place

Discrimination-disparity continuum



an unfortunate person who suffers from some adverse circumstance


a person who transgresses moral or civil law/ , a person who commits a crime


between, among, or involving people of different races.

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