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316 terms

Cultural Diversity

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In 2009, the incarceration rate for African American males in state and federal prisons was ____times the rate for whites.
6.7
Among Hispanics, slightly more than half self-identify:
By citing their country of origin
The development of theoretical studies of race, ethnicity, and crime
has been discouraged by the extreme sensitivity of the subject
Traditionally, race has referred to major biological divisions of mankind distinguished by color of skin, color and texture of hair, bodily proportions, and other physical features.
True
Discrimination is made illegal by the equal protection provision of the
14th Amendment
_______discrimination occurs only in certain situations
Contextual
Discrimination is a difference based on ______ without reference to an individual's behavior or qualifications
differential treatment of groups
The basic premise of _______theory is that the law is used to maintain the power of a society's dominant group and control the individuals who threaten that power.
...
It is difficult to make useful comparisons of the criminal justice experiences of different racial and ethnic groups because:
there has been little comparative research
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 covers employment discrimination by:
private employers and government agencies
Experts regard the concept of race as:
primarily a social construct
More than half of the Hispanic population in the US lives in:
California and Texas
The labels applied to groups are
usually applied by the politically and culturally dominant group
_______ discrimination occurs at all stages of the CJ system, in all places, and at all times
Systemic
The Uniform Crime Reports data are ____ with respect to many important issues related to race, ethnicity, and crime.
useless
Members of NCVS selected households are contacted either in person or by phone every____months for____years
6,3
The information on offenders gleaned from the UCR is incomplete and ______ because it includes only offenders whose crimes result in arrest.
Potentially misleading
The most systematic source of victimization information is the
NCVS
Youth gangs initially appeared in the U.S. :
after the Revolutionary War
NCVS interviews are conducted at 6-month intervals
TRUE
Early self-report surveys conducted before 1980 found
little difference in deliquency rates between African Americans and whites
Jacobs argued that a hate crime statute creates a law that is unlikely to deter and that its implementation
will widen social division
Our perceptions of crime are shaped to a large extent by the highly publicized crimes featured on the nightly news and sensationalized in newspapers.
TRUE
Household victimization rates are highest for______in suburban areas.
Whites
Arrests of Native Americans made by tribal police are
not recorded in UCR data
The accuracy of self-report surveys is influenced by:
...
Victimization surveys reveal that victims often fail to report crimes to the police because of the belief that:
...
Household victimization rates are highest for______ in urban areas
African Americans
The National Crime Victimization Survey is conducted by the:
Bureau of Justice Statistics
The race and ethnicity of the household is recorded as:
the race and ethnicity of the adult completing the household questionnaire
The crimes that receive the most attention from the media, from politicians, and from criminal justice policymakers, are:
street crimes such as murder, robbery, and rape
Analysis of all data sources reveals that crime is predominantly:
the intraracial event
The NCVS survey sample is chosen on the basis of:
the most recent census data
White ethnic gangs characterized by an emphasis on satanic rituals are called:
...
The practice by banks and savings and loan companies of refusing to offer mortgages in poor and minority neighborhoods was known as:
redlining
How much a person or family earns in any given period is called:
income
Historically, many property owners in the North adopted restrictive covenants that prohibited the sale of property to
African Americans or Jews
Official arrest data indicate that involvement in crime peaks at:
18 for violent crimes and 16 for property crimes
The most disturbing aspect of the poverty data is the number of _______living below the poverty line.
children
The term secondary labor market refers to:
available low-paying jobs with limited fringe benefits and uncertain prospects for the future
Job growth over the past 20 years has been strongest in
suburban areas outside the central cities
__________involves rejection of both the goals and accepted means of achieving them
Retreatism
___________theory holds that the administration of criminal justice reflects the unequal distribution of power in society.
Conflict
The unemployment rate for Hispanics of Mexican and Puerto Rican origin is consistently higher than for those of ______origin.
Cuban
The median net worth of whites is ___times that of Hispanics
8
________involves acceptance of society's goals but rejection of the accepted means of attaining them
Innovation
Sociologists and psychologists generally agree that ______ is the primary unit for transmitting values to children
the family
American metropolitan communities are characterized by strong patterns of
residential segregation
The growth of political and civil rights did not necessarily address ________inequality.
economic
The supply-side economic policies of the 1980s were referred to as:
Reaganomics
Which of the following is NOT part of a community's social structure?
The rate of population fluctuations
In 1968, the __________Commission warned that "our Nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white - separate and unequal."
Kerner
The official unemployment rate is _____ for teenagers than for adults
much higher
The peak years of criminal activity are for people between the ages of ____and ____.
12,21
The federal government first developed an official definition of poverty in:
1964
Sociologists and psychologists generally agree that ______ is the primary unit for transmitting values to children
The Family
The US Supreme Court barred imprisonment of a person for any offense unless they are represented by counsel in:
Argersinger v. Hamlin (1972)
There is evidence that judges in some jurisdictions continue to take race into account in deciding on the type and amount of bail.
TRUE
The emphasis of bail reform efforts in the 1970s was:
preventive detention
Racial minorities are at a disadvantage in court both because of their race and because they are more likely than whites to be poor.
True
The US Supreme Court applied the right to counsel at all critical stages in the criminal justice process, not just at trial, in:
Mempa v. Rhay (1967)
Prosecutors can reject charges as felonies but prosecute them as misdemeanors
True
The second bail reform movement occurred during the:
1970s
The _____________ found that the majority of defendants released on their own recognizance did appear for trial.
Manhattan Bail Project
The US Supreme Court held that the decision to prosecute may not be deliberately based upon an unjustifiable standard such as race, religion, or other arbitrary classification in:
Bordenkircher v. Haye (1978)
The us Supreme Court required that appointment of counsel for all indigent defendants in federal criminal cases in:
Johnson v. Zerbst (1938)
The US Supreme Court extended to the states the requirement to appoint for all indigent defendants in:
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
The US Supreme Court held that due process of law required appointment of counsel for young, inexperienced, illiterate, and indigent defendants in capital cases in:
Powell v. Alabama (1932)
The firsts bail reform movement occurred during the
1960s
The emphasis of bail reform efforts in the 1960s was
reduction of pretrial detention
The US Supreme Court held that defendants are entitled to effective assistance of counsel in:
Strickland v. Washington (1984)
Which of the following is cited in the text as a serious problem related to policing on Native American lands?
...
In the 1970s, in response to protests from civil rights groups, police departments began to replace the fleeing felon rule in favor of the _________rule.
defense of life
There are approximately _______ separate Native American law enforcement agencies in the U.S.
200
For police officers, derogatory language is a _______.
control technique
African Americans consistently report believing that police treat African Americans:
unfairly
The so-called _____________in Los Angeles in 1943 involved attacks on Hispanic men by police and by white Navy personnel on shore leave.
Zoot Suit Riot
The term police brutality is:
a political slogan with no precise meaning
Over the past 30 years, public attitudes toward the police have been:
remarkably stable
The FBI does not report arrest data on:
ethnicity
Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as a factor that helps explain the patterns of interactions between Hispanics and the police?
Hispanics' unwillingness to oppose criminal elements within their communities who do not want a police presence in the neighborhoods.
Which of the following does NOT determine a Native American tribal police agency' jurisdiction or lack of jurisdiction in a specific case?
tribal affiliation of the victim
Most police corruption involves___________.
vice activities
The term "driving while black" was coined to describe the police practice of:
racial profiling
The changing demographic face of the United States because of ___________presents a special challenge for the police
immigration
The vast majority of all Americans express __________the police
confidence in
Most sentencing research examines the sentences imposed on offenders convicted of:
felonies
The term _________characterizes that segment of the deviant population that is viewed as particularly threatening and dangerous.
social dynamite
Concerns about the changes in the racial/ethnic makeup of a community, coupled with stereotypes linking race and ethnicity to drug use and drug-related crime and violence, may lead to _________among sentencing officials.
unconscious racism
Evidence concerning the impact of state sentencing reforms is:
inconsistent
Under ___________ sentencing rules, sentences were tailored to the individual offender
indeterminate
According to Zatz, the issue of ________ in sentencing "may well have been the major research inquiry for studies of sentencing in the 1970s and 1980s."
racial disparity
The _________suggests that jurors deviate from their fact-finding mission in cases in which the evidence against the defendant is weak or contradictory.
liberation hypothesis
The contradictory findings of early research exploring the effect of race on sentencing resulted in part from a/an __________of conflict theory.
oversimplification
There are ____types of evidence of racial disparity in sentencing
Two
Structured sentencing proposals seek to__________the discretion of sentencing judges
...
A defendant is entitled to a jury composed in whole or in part of persons of his own race.
False
The phrase "playing the race card" refers to
...
In ______, the USSC struck down as "purposeful discrimination" one state's rejection of African Americans for jury duty because they were "not intelligent, experienced, or moral enough to serve as jurors."
Neal v. Delaware (1882)
In _________, the USSC reversed a death sentence murder conviction because the district attorney asked the jury commissioner to limit the numberof African Americans and women on the master lists from which potential jurors were chosen.
Amadeo v. Zant (1988)
The USSC first addressed racial experience in jury selection in:
Strauder v. West Virginia (1880)
The USSC's ruling in _______rejected the systematic exclusion requirement articulated in Swain v. Alabama (1965):
Batson v. Kentucky (1986)
In _______, the USSC ruled a Georgia county's practice of putting the names of white potential jurors on white cards and African American potential jurors on yellow cards, then "randomly" drawing cards to determine who would be summoned for jury duty, as unconstitutional.
Avery v. Georgia (1953)
Many states obtain the names of potential jurors from
All options are correct?????
In ________, the USSC held that, in assessing the racial neutrality of a prosecutor's peremptory challenge, the trial court was required to evaluate the genuineness of the prosecutor's explanation, not its reasonableness.
Purkett v. Elem (1995)
In _______, the USSC struck down the "random" selection of jurors from tax books in which the names of white taxpayers were in one section and the names of African American taxpayers were in another
???
__________banned imposing the death penalty on a defendant convicted of rape.
Coker v. Georgia (1977)
__________banned execution of those who were under age 18 at the time of their crime.
Roper v. Simmons (2005)
__________banned executing the mentally handicapped.
Atkins v. Virginia (2002)
In 2003, the governor of ________ commuted the sentences of all of the state's death row inmates to life in prison because of his concerns for systemic error.
Illinois
Cruel and unusual punishments are prohibited by the _______Amendment to the US Constitution
Eighth
______times as many whites attend college as are under correctional supervision
Four
Less than ____percent of white males are under correctional supervision
Three
The decision to revoke parole is:
discretionary
The decision to release a prison inmate on discretionary parole is made by:
a parole board
Nearly _____percent of African American males are under correctional supervision.
20
Among ________, juvenile property crime victimization rates do not vary significantly from adult victimization rates
Hispanics
Data on homicide offenders reveal that roughly _____percent of all homicides are committed by offenders known to the victim.
50
Information concerning the racial and ethnic trends in victimization for juveniles is:
scarce
Juvenile arrests for violent crimes declined _____percent between 1994 and 2003.
32
In general, _________crime victimization rates are higher for younger age groups than for older age groups.
violent
Juvenile justice officials are more concerned about rehabilitation than:
retribution
Because the juvenile justice system espouses the philosophy of parens patriae, it is more _____than the adult system.
DISCRETIONARY
The small racial differences in outcomes at the initial stages of the process that accumulate and become more pronounced as minority youths are processedfurther into the juvenile justice system are known as:
compound risk
The number of juveniles arrested increased _____percent between 1985 and 1994
100
Because the juvenile justice system espouses the philosophy of parens patriae, it is less ______than the adult system.
FORMAL
Data on _________victimization rates broken down by age, gender, and race reveal that young African American males are particularly at risk.
violent
The NCVS defines juvenile as youth aged:
12-17
The calculated likelihood that a youth at one stage in the juvenile justice process would reach the next stage is called:
transitional probability
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention report "Juvenile Victims of Property Crime," stated that ________juveniles had been the victim of a property crime.
one of every six
The number of juveniles arrested declined _____percent between 1994 and 2003
18
The United States Supreme Court ruled in _______that waiver hearings must measure up to "the essentials of due process and fair treatment."
Kent v. United States (1966)
In the late 1980s, _________became the first state to create a computerized database of suspected gang members.
California
Data on homicide offenders reveal that offending peaks at around age:
18
The proportion of the total population younger than age 18 that reached each stage in the juvenile justice process is called
compound probability
Juvenile arrests for violent crimes increased ____percent between 1985 and 1994.
75
Race
a classification of people based on physical and biological characteristics such as the color of skin, hair, and eyes.
Ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
Social construct
a concept that recognises that people have different views based on their social circumstances and ways of seeing, interpreting, interrelating and interacting with their environment
Legal consciousness
-the sum of views and ideas expressing the attitude of people toward law, legality, and justice and their concept of what is lawful and unlawful
Systematic discrimination
different service/treatment due to race; schools receive less funding that have more minority populations than others
Institutionalized discrimination
the persistence of discrimination in social institutions that is not necessarily recognized by everybody as discrimination
Contextual discrimination
describes a siutation in which racial minorites are treated more harshly at some points and in some places in the criminal justice system but no differently that whites at other points and in other places
Individual discrimination
harmful action directed intentionally, on a one-to-one basis, by a member of a dominant group against a member of a minority group
Pure justice
no discrimination at any time or in any place
Discrimination-disparity continuum
...
Victim
an unfortunate person who suffers from some adverse circumstance
Offender
a person who transgresses moral or civil law/ , a person who commits a crime
Interracial
between, among, or involving people of different races.
Intraracial
among the one race, within the same group. so either all white, or all black, or all asians, etc..,/ Within the same race
NCVS
National Crime Victimization Survey,/ Provides information about victims: age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, income, educational level
Whether there is a victim offender relationship
Time and place of occurrence, Use of weapons,Injury
Economic consequences
To address the non-reporting issue of the UCR, the federal government sponsors this annual comprehensive, nationwide survey of victimization in the United States
Validity issues: over reporting due to victims' misinterpretation, underreporting due to embarrassment, inability to record personal criminal activity of those interviewed, sampling errors
Murder not included, for obvious reasons
UCR
Uniform Crime Report,/ oldest form of data on crime in the US (1930s), uses standardized definitions of crimes, tells us the number of offenses known to police/the number of arrests/the clearance rate for each jurisdiction, generally under-reports, data used most often by media and others
Racial hoax
Played to the "mad black woman imagery"
Reflects societal perspectives and distorted images of victims and offenders in America
Wastes law enforcement resources
Intentionally directing law enforcement & media towards "stereotypical" criminalized groups
Gang
act as an organized group/, A gang is a group of criminals that work together; these criminals are often called gangsters.
Hate crime
a criminal offense committed because of the offender's bias against a race, religion, ethnic group, national origin, or sexual orientation
Inequality
an unfair situation in which some people have more rights or better opportunities than other people
Poverty
the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions
Wealth
the quality of profuse abundance/, property that has economic utility: a monetary value or an exchange value
Income
the financial gain (earned or unearned) accruing over a given period of time
Underclass
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Segregation
separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Disenfranchisement
To deprive of a right, such as voting./, the systematic exclusion of a group of people from power in a society regardless of individual effort
Social Strain Theory
Holds that each society has dominant values with acceptable methods of achieving goals
Not all can achieve these goals, or do so acceptably - creating social strain
Rebellion
Retreatism
Innovation
Kerner Commission
The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, chair Governor Otto Kerner, Jr. of Illinois. Established by President Johnson in 1967 to investigate the causes of race riots and potential recommendations for the future. Claimed that riots resulted from black frustrations at lack of economic opportunity
Routine Activity Theory
A perspective on adolescence that views unstructured, unsupervised time with peers as a main cause of misbehavior
Conflict Theory
The view that crime is a function of class conflict and power relations. Laws are created and enforced by those in power to protect their own interests.
Social Disorganization Theory
The theory that attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions, such as the family, school, church, and local government
Culture Conflict Theory
Essentially a clash between the social mores of the middle class and the conduct norms of other groups.
Differential Association Theory
theory that individuals learn deviance in proportion to the number of deviant acts they are exposed to
Restrictive covenant
A provision in a deed to real property prohibiting its sale to a person of a particular race or religion. Judicial enforcement of such deeds is unconstitutional.
Steering
Illegal practice of channeling home seekers to particular neighborhoods based on race, religion, national origin; an illegal limitation of a purchaser's options
Racial profiling
any police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on a person's behavior
PERF
takes UCR data, adds their own data, not national
Corruption
dishonest or illegal behavior in a person of authority, often for personal gain
Community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
Special unit
a unit of local government created by the state to perform specific functions not met by cities or counties, including the provision of public services to unincorporated areas
Immigration
To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native
Public opinion
a belief or sentiment shared by most people
Procedural justice
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
Language barriers
verbal and/or non-verbal barriers to effective communication.
Verbal Barrier example: Foreign Language, Or vocal that is not familiar to patients
Non-Verbal barriers: hand gestures, head nodding
Internal Affairs
The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoing involving members of the department.
Citizen complaints
...
Tribal police
created and operated by native americans which have a constitutional government on Reservations
sheriffs, constables, regulators, lighthorsemen, etc.— and today work closely with local, state, and federal police agencies
Fleeing Felon Rule
a person is allowed to stop a fleeing individual; unlawful to use deadly force unless necesarry
Defense of Life Rule
Limits legitimate shooting parameters
Rate of fatal police shootings has declined
(May not change individual attitudes, but controls individual behavior.)
Police brutality
the unlawful use of physical force by officers in the performance of their duties
Excessive force
the application of an amount or frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a willing or unwilling subject.
Arrest & Detain
Restraint and seizure of a person by someone (e.g., a police officer) acting under legal authority. An officer may arrest a person who is committing or attempting to commit a crime in the officer's presence./ To keep in custody or temporary confinement: The police detained several suspects for questioning. The disruptive students were detained after school until their parents had been notified
Zero-Tolerance
strict enforcement of the law regarding any form of anitsocial behavior
War on Drugs
A policy aimed at reducing the sale and use of illegal drugs.
Out of place
White person visiting a friend in a poor minority neighborhood might be detained
Crackdown on crime
Focus on "high-crime" areas leads to more stops of racial & ethnic minorities
Baseline
in a single case design, the subject's behavior during a control period before introduction of the experimental manipulation
Verbal abuse
using words to mistreat or injure another person
Plea Bargain
(criminal law) a negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge and the prosecutor agrees to drop a more serious charge
Bail
the legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial)
Sentencing
with an attorney present, the judge decides whether to impose a term of incarceration and, if so, the duration of the term
All-white juries
...
Departure
A stipulation in many federal and state sentencing guidelines that allows a judge to adjust his or her sentencing decision based on the special circumstances of a particular case.
Right to counsel
Individual right found in the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution that requires criminal defendants to have access to legal representation.
Public defender
An attorney employed by the government to represent criminal defenders who cannot afford to pay for a lawyer.
BJS
the agency in the Department of Justice that is the primary source of criminal justice statistics for federal and local policymakers
Prison
a correctional institution where persons are confined while on trial or for punishment
Self-perpetuating
adj. Having the power to renew oneself for an in-
definite period of time
It is difficult to escape from a lie, as they are often self-perpetuating.
Private attorney
...
Incarceration
the state of being imprisoned
Prosecutor
a government official who conducts criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state
Discretion
the power of making free choices unconstrained by external agencies
Criminal record
a list of crimes for which an accused person has been previously convicted
Social factors
Project team culture, norms of behavior, values, enthusiasm, experience, authority, and influence of team members.
Bail reform
*Critics believe that the bail system is discriminatory because defendants who were financially well off can make bail, whereas indigent defendants are stuck in jail due to lack of money
*About 60% of released offenders are eventually convicted, while detainees receive somewhat longer sentences than people released before trial on bail
*Along with the high costs of confinement, all the problems above have given rise to bail reform programs
-These programs have enabled many deserving but indigent offenders to go free; but another trend has been to deny people bail on the grounds that they are a danger to themselves or to others in the community
Pretrial
(law) a conference held before the trial begins to bring the parties together to outline discovery proceedings and to define the issues to be tried
Political winds
the Right, right-wing and rightist describe a family of political views, usually contrasted with views described as "the Left". There is a great deal of disagreement about what those views are, and meanings may vary with context.Generally, they refer to acceptance or support of a hierarchical society based upon social order that is justified by an appeal to natural law or tradition.
Assessments
judgments or opinions
Jail
a correctional institution used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the government (either accused persons awaiting trial or convicted persons serving a sentence)
Contextual discrimination
describes a siutation in which racial minorites are treated more harshly at some points and in some places in the criminal justice system but no differently that whites at other points and in other places
Jury nullification
an option for the jury that allows it to disregard both the law and the evidence and acquit the defendant if the jury believes that an acquittal is justified
Race card
an idiomatic phrase that refers to exploitation of either racist or (more frequently) anti-racist attitudes to gain a personal advantage, typically by falsely accusing others of racism against oneself.
Peremptory challenge
A district court may grant each side in a civil or criminal trial the right to exclude a certain number of prospective jurors without cause or giving a reason.
Systematic discrimination
any business practice that results in denial of equal employment opportunity
Jury pool
Consists of a list of potential jurors who are eligible for a given period of service
Batson v. Kentucky
...
Prima facie
At first glance; without investigation or evaluation. That which, if not rebutted, is sufficient to establish a fact or case.
Juror exclusion
Typically 12 members but most states allow a minimum of 6.

Voir dire: questioning of potential jury members to weed out those with bias or other obstacles to delivering a fair verdict

Challenge for cause: removal based on bias or some legal disability

Peremptory challenge: removal with no reason given
Jury diversity
...
Strauder v. West Virginia
...
All-white jury
...
Adjudication
the final judgment in a legal proceeding
Ex. the act of pronouncing judgment based on the evidence presented
Appellate courts
These courts do not determine guilt or innocence, but if the accused has had a fair trial. These courts can be either state or federal.
Trial courts
courts of original jurisdiction where cases begin
courts that determine the facts and apply the law to the facts
Swain v. Alabama
...
Sentencing
with an attorney present, the judge decides whether to impose a term of incarceration and, if so, the duration of the term
Disparity
inequality or difference in some respect
Sentencing departure
The United States Supreme Court in 1996 held that federal district court judges had discretion to depart from the recommendations of the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines. See: Koon v. United States, 518 U.S. 91, 98 (1996).
Criminal record
a list of crimes for which an accused person has been previously convicted
Direct discrimination
when someone is treated unfairly and is disadvantaged because of a personal characteristic
Indirect discrimination
broad practice that indirectly affects group members without intending to
Judge's discretion
when judge's have the latitude to decide different punishments for the same crimes
Liberation hypothesis
most discrimination occurs not in the more serious crime sentencing, but in the less serious, where judges have wide latitude and discretion to impose varying sentences. Minorities go to prison for lesser crimes than do whites
Drug courts
places non-violent drug involved defendants in judicially supervised rehabilitation programs
Victim characteristics
control police action (that is, police are more willing to make an arrest when the victim is older, white, affluent, and so on)
offender characteristics
Seem like everyone else, lack empathy, intelligent, view victims as items
Conflict theory
the view that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and that those who maintain social power will use it to further their own ends
Nature of crime
...
Culpability
a state of guilt
Prosecutorial discretion
a prosecutor's power to choose from the options available in a criminal case, such as filing charges, prosecuting,plea-bargaining,and recommending a sentence to the court
War on Drugs
A policy aimed at reducing the sale and use of illegal drugs.
, (GB1), William Bennett as there was a dramatic increase in drug use, and demand for illegal drugs, especially "crack" cocaine, political figures of both parties spoke heatedly about the need for a "war on drugs", but government efforts to stop drug imports and reduce demand had little effect.
Unconscious racism
unknown and unintentional expression of prejudice that lead to discrimination
Predictors
early onset of violence and delinquency is associated with more serious and chronic violence.
Social dynamite
from the conflict perspective, people who have been marginalized (rioters, labor organizers, gang members, and criminals)
Interracial v. intraracial
...
Furman v. Georgia
...
Gregg v. Georgia
...
Death penalty application
...
Moratorium
a legally authorized postponement before some obligation must be discharged
DNA testing
can prove if someone was the perpetrator of a crime
Death penalty reform
...
Capital sentencing process
...
DOJ
the United States federal department responsible for enforcing federal laws (including the enforcement of all civil rights legislation)
Racial disparity
the condition that exists when minorities make up a greater percentage of those under correctional supervision then their makeup in the U.S. population
McClessey v. Kemp
was a United States Supreme Court court case, in which the death penalty sentencing of Warren McCleskey for armed robbery and murder was upheld. The Court said the "racially disproportionate impact" in Georgia death penalty indicated by a comprehensive scientific study was not enough to overturn the guilty verdict without showing a "racially discriminatory purpose."
On appeal to the federal courts via a habeas petition, petitioner alleged the state's capital sentencing process was administered in a racially discriminatory manner in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment
in an opinion by Justice Lewis Powell, held that the statistical study did not present substantial evidence that would require a reversal of petitioner's conviction. The Court concluded that the lower court had properly applied Georgia law.
Supreme Court
the highest court in most states of the United States
Clemency
leniency and compassion shown toward offenders by a person or agency charged with administering justice
Execution
putting a condemned person to death
Appeal
(law) a legal proceeding in which the appellant resorts to a higher court for the purpose of obtaining a review of a lower court decision and a reversal of the lower court's judgment or the granting of a new trial
Ruling
exercising power or authority, the reason for a court's judgment (as opposed to the decision itself)
Statute adoption
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city, or county.[1] Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy.[1] The word is often used to distinguish law made by legislative bodies from case law, decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies.
Empirical study
performing an experiment repeatedly, collecting and combining data, and analyzing the results
Charging
The act of formally asserting that a particular person is to be prosecuted for a crime.
Arbitrary
unreasonable; based on one's wishes or whims; without regard for reason or fairness
2.(of power or a ruling body) Unrestrained and autocratic in the use of authority.
GAO
an independent nonpartisan federal agency that acts as the investigative arm of Congress making the executive branch accountable to Congress and the government accountable to citizens of the United States
Prison v. jail
...
Probation
(law) a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them
Ex. a defendant found guilty of a crime is released by the court without imprisonment subject to conditions imposed by the court; "probation is part of the sentencing process"
Parole
(law) a conditional release from imprisonment that entitiles the person to serve the remainder of the sentence outside the prison as long as the terms of release are complied with
Religion
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
Classification
a group of people or things arranged by class or category
the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories
Federal v. state prisons
...
Adjustment
the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
Social groupings
people within the same social class
-equal standing in the community
-similar occupations, lifestyles
-common tastes, shared values, socialize with each other
Systemic
of or pertaining to the entire body; relating to a system or systems
Myth
a traditional story; in some cultures, a legend that explains people's beliefs
Tribal courts
a court administered through self-government of an American Indian tribe esp. on a reservation; Can be subject to juristiction of U.S. Federal Law
Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts
The Key Components was developed by the Tribal Law and Policy Institute in close collaboration and consultation with the Tribal Advisory Committee for the Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts and with the funding and support of the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs
Community corrections
correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls
Pretrial detention
holding an offender in secure confinement before trial
Juvenile
(adj)not fully grown; of or meant for children or young people; foolish or immature (n)a young person or individual
Adolescent
a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity
Transfer
move from one place to another
Delinquent
a young offender
Victimization
an act that exploits or victimizes someone (treats them unfairly)
Offending
offending against or breaking a law or rule
Index Crimes
the eight types of crime reported annually by the FBI in the Uniform Crime Reports: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson
Juvenile court
a court that has original jurisdiction over persons defined by statute as juveniles and alleged to be delinquents or status offenders
Demonize
make into a demon, (v) to try to make somone or something seem as evil as possible, in order to influence a third party
Juvenile facility
a secure residential facility for young people often termed juvenile delinquents awaiting court hearings and/or placement in long term care facilities and programs
Disparate
basically different; impossible to compare; unrelated
Legal custody
the right to make important decisions about the children and the obligation to have legal responsibility for them
Detention
a state of being confined (usually for a short time)
Family
primary social group
Ex. parents and children; "he wanted to have a good job before starting a family"
Social disorganization
A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus.
Violent crime
Criminal acts that involve force or the threat of force against others and includes aggravated assault, murder, rape, and robbery
Property crime
Crimes that do not involve violence, including burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson as reported in the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Social construct
a concept that recognises that people have different views based on their social circumstances and ways of seeing, interpreting, interrelating and interacting with their environment
Stereotypes
generalized beliefs about what members of an identifiable group are like that operate as schemas when perceiving members of those groups
Police
primary point of contact between population and criminal justice system
Courts
-institutions that sit as neutral third parties to resolve conflicts according to the law
-a place where laws are decided
Impartiality
an inclination to weigh both views or opinions equally
Bias
influence in an unfair way
Systematic
having a method or plan carried out in a step-by-step procedure
Color blind
refusing to recognize or discuss racial differences
Pervasive
spreading throughout
Discrimination
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
Punitive
inflicting punishment
Ex. "punitive justice"; "punitive damages"
Death penalty
putting a condemned person to death
CJ system
-Sets societal standards
-Helps create laws
-Helps enforce laws
-Helps correct and rehabilitate those who violate law