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sorry if the pictures are totally irrelevant to you, but they make sense to me

Congress of Vienna

RUSSIA: Polish territory, Finland
PRUSSIA: 2/5 of Saxony, Swedish Pomerania, Territory in the Rhineland
AUSTRIA: sans belgium, Gained italian states, Dominated german confederation
SPAIN: Bourbon king
BRITAIN: Colonial posessions, French & Dutch colonial possessions

Sir Walter Scott

Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet

Thomas Carlyle

-Scottish satirist, essayist, and historian
-Lost christian faith

Caspar Friedrich

German Romantic landscape painter

JMW Turner

English romantic landscape painter & Watercolorist

Eugène Delacroix

French romantic painter, illustrated many famous literary works

Hector Berlioz

French romantic composer

François-René de Chateaubriand

-French writer, politician, diplomat and historian.
-the founder of Romanticism in French literature.

The Great Awakening

religious awakening in America

Goals of the Congress of Vienna

-ensure that France would not become an aggressor
-Restore the BOP
-France needs to compensate
-Restore legitimacy to the throne

Main guys at the congress of vienna

Castlereigh - Britain
Austria - Metternich
Prussia - Hardenberg
Russia - Alexander I
France - Talleyrand

the Holy Alliance

Austria, Prussia, Russia

The Quadruple Alliance

Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia

German Confederation

the germany that was decided upon in the congress of vienna
-german states, austria, prussia ( )

Corn Laws

laws in england that protected corn & cereal producers in england from less expensive foreign imports

Peterloo Massacre

(1819) protesters got shot. they wanted parliamentary representation and the corn acts made them mad because corn was just too dang expensive.

Six Acts

after the peterloo massacre, the government reacted with these and severely restricted the rights of the English people.


German college students that were in support of nationalism & liberalism.

Karlsbad Decrees

banned burschenschaftens!!
-karlsbad, bohemia

Edmund Burke

-classical liberalism
-whig party in england
-founder of modern conservatism


-Stability & longevity, not progress and change, mark a good society.
-The only legitimate sources of political authority were God and history.
-They rejected the "social contract" theory.
-Conservatives believed that self-interests do not lead to social harmony, but to social conflict.
-Denounced individualism and natural rights.

Decembrist Revolt

-The Moscow Regiment wont take oath & they hate Nicholas I
-First Russian Rebellion to have specific political goals
-Nicholas II is the ultimate reactionary.

Greek Revolution

-1821, Greece
-europeans saw it as their duty to help the greeks (ancient greek culture super important in the renaissance)
-The Eastern Question & The Ottomans

Pan Hellenism

Bringing all greeks together

Treaty of Adrianople

-Greek Independence
-Treaty of London (1830)

Spanish Revolution of 1820

-crushed by france
-want a constitution

Two Sicilies Revolution of 1821

Two sicilies & Piedmont sardinia band together and try to unite italy
-crushed by austria, FAIL


-1814 "charter"
Limited royal power.
Granted legislative power.
Protected civil rights.
Upheld the Napoleon Code.

Charles X

-lessen bourgeois influence
-limit voting rights
-church in charge of education
-repayed nobles who lost land in revolution

July Ordinances

Charles X got mad when the liberals won, so he..
-dissolved entire parlaiment
-strict censorship
-changed voting laws to ensure a conservative victory.

Louis Philippe

-doubles eligible voters, property qualifications
-no censorship of press
-king ruled by people, pas Dieu!
-La Bande Tricouleure!

-ignored workers in the cities
-had to crush some rebellions

Belgian Revolution of 1830

-sudden nationalism
-cultural differences
-leopold I put on throne (saxe coburg)

Flora Tristan

Flora Tristan (1803-1844) was a socialist writer and activist. She was also one of the founders of modern feminism.

Polish Revolt of 1830

-romanticism influence
-poland is split between radicals and moderates;; unsuccessful

The February Revolutions

-louis philippe is fat and everyone hates him
-they use banquets to protest
-louis says no banquets guys


June Days

national workshops were shut down

Second French Republic

-An elected president
-one house legislature

President Louis Napoleon
-purged radicals
-disbanded national assembly
-used force against dissenters
-declared the emperor in 1851.. oh lord

Daniel O' Connell

-an Irish political leader
-He campaigned for Catholic Emancipation
—the right for Catholics to sit in the Westminster Parliament, denied for over 100 years
—repeal of the Act of Union which combined Great Britain and Ireland.

Earl Grey

-prominent Whig politician
-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1830 to 1834, -Great Reform Act of 1832.

Reform Act of 1832

-gave seats to large cities
-got rid of "rotten bouroughs"
-more people can vote

Robert Peel

-conservative english prime minister
-police force -- "Bobbies" "Peelers"
-repealed corn acts
-creation of conservative party

Lajos Kossuth

hungarian revolutionary leader
austrian & russian armies defeated the hungarians


heart of Italian nationalism
"Duties of Man"
-God, Country, Family

Frederick Wilhelm IV

anti-liberal, arthurian romantic
relied on Junker support

Frankfurt Assembly

German National Assembly established in Frankfürt
-universal suffrage
-made up of mostly middle class
-Habsburgs or Hohenzollerns?
-Habsburgs chosen


civilian police force in Berlin
protecting citizens


less radical socialists who want everyone to just have the basics provided by the government

Father Jahn

German Nationalist, hates French, Jews, Spanish, Italians

JG Herde

German volksgeist


-Spinning Jenny
-Makes spinning faster


water frame
-water powers the spinning


spinning mule
-combination of spinning jenny and water frame, produces stronger thread


Power loom
-weaving speed increasted drastically!


first practical steam engine for pumping water, the Newcomen steam engine.


The Romantic Era was the emotional reaction to the logical Enlightenment. Volksgeist.
England- Shelley, Wordsworth, Blake, Byron, Keats, Coleridge, Sir Walter Scott
France- Hugo, Chateaubriand
Germany- Goethe, Herder, Schiller, Schlegal, Brothers Grimm

Classical Liberalism

Basic generalization from country to country.
-Popular among businessmen and professionals.
-Freedom of the press
-Support of revolution.
-Interested in land.
-Not democratic
-Advocated laissez faire
WHO- Adam Smith, physiocrats
-Hated war and established churches
-limited government involvement
-rule of law & due process
-universal manhood suffrage
-liberties of man (religion, speech, press, assembly, and free markets)

Radicals (England)/ Republicans (France)

-Working class leaders
-But as soon as they got the vote, they became Classical Liberals (confusing)
-Went to the root of the problem and sought reform, radically.
-Conscious heirs of the French Revolution
-Hated the church and the Old Regime
-Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham

English author, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He is best known for his advocacy of utilitarianism and animal rights, and the idea of the panopticon.

-il a pas de la tête


Shared all the radical/republican opinions, but wanted to reform the economy. They thought everyone should have the basic necessities of life. Why bother worrying about elections if people are starving?

Robert Owen

Built a model community, New Lanark. This company-based commune system lasted until the 1950s. The problem was that Robert Owen was tyrannically Puritan, so New Lanark failed. So Owen moved to America and formed another one.

St. Simon

Believed in a planned society and public ownership

Louis Blanc

Most politically active. Created social workshops. The workers' labor was for themselves by themselves. The bourgeoisie disliked Blanc for catering o the workers. Involved in the 1848 Revolution.


Anarchist who believed that property is profit from the worker.


Doctrinaire thinker; he lived in the world of ideas that weren't concrete. He thought in principle, not practicality. Believed society could be organized into groups of exactly 1,600 people.


-Synonym of socialism
-Communist League (featuring Karl Marx and Engals)

Things that the Communist League Wanted:

-Unified Germany
-Give everyone GUNS!
-Limit inheritance
-Progressive income taxes
-State-owned railroads, banks, etc.


Marx borrowed ideas from. Thought that history is an unfolding of ideas- Thesis vs. Antithesis= Synthesis.


Reaction towards forced internationalism (by Napoleon)
-Initially anti-French and anti-autocratic
-GERMANY!!! Deutschland ist die höchste aller Nationen. Volksgeist!

Volksgeist whatnot

-Father Jahn- Excercized youth, but made fun or foreigners and Jews. Extremist.
-Fichte- Doctrine of the inner spirit. Volksgeist.

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