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Franklin Delano Roosevelt

This American president is most responsible for beginning the "welfare" programs that we now have in the United States

Fireside Chats

Radio broadcasts that helped increase FDR's popularity during the 1930s and 1940s

Dust Bowl

Dry, barren area caused by a terrible drought in the Great Plains during the Great Depression

Collective Bargaining

The process in which union officials represent the workers and negotiate with the management

Sit Down Strikes

Strategy used by unions that prevented scab workers from entering the assembly lines


Amazingly, many Americans did not realize that FDR was paralyzed by this disease until after his death in 1945


This political party gained African-American voters' support thanks to the efforts of FDR and his New Deal policies to help the poor during the Great Depression

Herbert Hoover

This American president was elected in 1928 and held on as America headed into the Great Stock Market Crash and the Great Depression

Alfred Smith

This Democrat lost in 1928 because he was the son of an immigrant, Catholic, against Prohibition, and most Americans felt the Republican Party was responsible for the prosperity of the Roaring Twenties


Nickname for the shantytowns of homeless people during the Great Depression

Bonus Army

Group of unemployed World War I veterans who marched on Washington in 1932


When someone invests money in the hope of making a profit

Black Tuesday

Nickname for the Great Stock Market Crash on October 29, 1929

Deficit Spending

When the government spends more money than it collects in taxes in an attempt to stimulate the economy

Huey Long

Louisiana senator who criticized FDR's New Deal programs; he believed in taxing the millionaires to "share the wealth"

Social Security

This program was created in 1935 to create a retirement plan for the elderly suffering during the Great Depression

Brain Trust

FDR's close advisors who helped develop the New Deal philosophy

Mary McCleod Bethune

This woman was the leader of the Office of Minority Affairs who worked with FDR to help achieve racial equality for African-Americans

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

This New Deal program insured everyone's savings deposits to help restore public confidence in the banking system

Agricultural Adjustment Act

This New Deal program paid farmers NOT to produce as much so prices would rise

Civilian Conservation Corps

This New Deal program provided jobs for single, 18-25 year- old unemployed men to plant trees and work on forest conservation projects

Works Progress Administration

This New Deal program gave Federal money to local governments to create jobs for the unemployed

National Recovery Administration

This New Deal program encouraged small businesses to cooperate with each other, not compete, by controlling wages and prices

Tennessee Valley Authority

This New Deal program was set up to create jobs and provide electricity and recreational areas attempting to raise the standard of living for citizens in a seven-state region during the Great Depression

Congress of Industrial Organizations

This organization was headed by John L. Lewis where all workers in the same industry (both skilled and unskilled) come together as one union

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