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Terms in this set (27)
Who are the Allied Powers?
Britain, France, Russia,
What is Isolationism?
a policy of not being involved in the affairs of other nations
United States major isolation power
Who were the Central Powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
A political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
• Policy of military preparedness and buildup of weapons
• Germany also enlarged its army
• One strategy, the Schlieffen plan, provided precise instructions for waging a two front war against France and Russia at the same time
• Also called for a surprise invasion of France by passing through Belgium with a subsequent attack on Russia
Describe the propaganda at the time of WWI
•they made political cartoons promoting their own countries, and against Germany.
•To help pay for the war, Wilson launched four drives to sell liberty bonds
• The bonds, like todays savings bonds, were a form of loan to the governmentp
who was in the triple alliance?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
What was the Zimmerman note?
•Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to a German official in Mexico proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico
• The note stated that the two countries would work together and said Mexico can reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas and Arizona
• British intercepted the note and decoded it, then sent it to American officials
• The note was published and more Americans called for war
• Wilson resisted hoping to find peace in Europe
What was the Sussex pledge?
a promise not to sink merchant vessels without warning and without saving human lives
Who was in the Triple Entente?
Britain, France and Russia
Why was nationalism an important factor in WWI?
with the creation of new nations like Germany and Italy in the 1870's, nationalism led to competition for power, especially in the Balkans
How did WWI start and who was involved?
• Austro Hungarian officials blamed Serbia for Ferdinand's murder and declared war
• Russia promised to protect Serbia
• Russia quickly began to mobilize its army
• Germany viewed Russia's mobilization as an act of aggression against its ally and declared war on Russia
• Germany declared war on France, and all-out war was about to begin
Discuss how European alliances led to war
• Germany forced a military alliance with Austria Hungary and Italy - triple alliance
• France and Russia formed a secret alliance
• Britain worries about Germany expanding so they create the triple entente.
• Some European leaders believed that these alliances created a balance of power (each nation had equal strength) and that it would decrease the chances of war
• After a single attack on Austria Hungary, Europe exploded into war
What do you think was the major cause of WWI?
Sinking of the Lusitania
How did Germany violate laws of neutrality with their U-boats?
•Germany announces that the waters around great Britain would be a war zone in which Germany would destroy all enemy ships
• Germany warned the US that neutral ships might also be attacked
• This policy of submarines attacking all ships was called unrestricted submarine warfare
• Wilson believed Germany's actions violated the laws of neutrality
• He warned Germany that he would hold them responsible if American lives were lost
What affect did the US troops have for the Allies in WWI?
• Privately, Wilson favored the allied cause because he was extremely concerned about Germany's tactics and its invasion of Belgium
• The US had greater political, cultural, and commercial ties to GBR and France than Germany and Financially, the US was far from neutral
• The British fleet blockaded German ports and transportation routes, and few American businesses could sell goods to German forces
• It was far easier to supply the allies
• By 1917 GBR was purchasing nearly 75 million dollars' worth of war goods from American businesses each week
How did the US government regulate industry and food during WWI?
They regulated industry by
• Congress created hundreds of administrative boards to regulate industry and agriculture. The most popular was the War Industry Board.
They regulated food by
• Congress passed the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act
• Gave the government power to set prices and establish production controls for food and for the fuels needed to run military machines
What acts were made by the US government that were challenged in court? What did those acts do?
Espionage Act- which limited anti war speech and went against the 1st amendment. It punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty.
Sedition Act- was passed a year later, and it made it illegal for Americans to utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal or abusive language. Over 1000 opponents to the war were jailed.
How did the Versailles treaty affect Germany?
• It forced Germany to disarm its military forces
• Pay the allies reparations
• Made Germany accept sole responsibility for the war
What were the 14 points?
Woodrow Wilson Expressed progressive policies
•First four points called for open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, removal of trade barriers, reduction of military
• Fifth point proposed a fair system to resolve dispute over colonies
• Next eight points dealt directly with self determination, or the right of people to decide their own political status
• Fourteenth point, which Wilson considered the most important, was the league of nations (the league would be an organization of nations that would work together to settle disputes, protect democracy and prevent future wars)
What type of warfair
Who were the Big 4?
Woodrow Wilson (US)
David Lloyd George (GBR)
Georges Clemenceau (FRA)
Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando (ITA)
Was Wilson happy with the Versailles Treaty? Yes no and why?
Wilson was not happy with the Treaty of Versailles, because he found that it was too harsh.
• Also, when Wilson presented the League of Nations to the United States senate, it was rejected
• The US never joined the League of Nations
Why did the British join the war?
Because they were part of the triple entente, they had to fulfill their alliance with Russia and France. When the Germans violated Belgium's neutrality, they forced to get involved.
Why does Russia pull out of the war?
• They where begining their own revolution
Along the Eastern Front, Russia was struggling to defend itself
• If Russia fell, many of the German troops on the Eastern Front could fight in France
Austria Hungary declare war on Serbia, Russia declares war on Germany, Germany declare war on Russia and France, France declares war on Germany and Germany declare war on UK
Regulates the War
War industry board