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Ch. 4 Bio Study Guide

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Organic Chemistry is a science based on the study of
Carbon Compounds
Early 19th-century scientists believed that living organisms differed from nonliving things as a result of processing a "life force" that could create organic molecules from inorganic matter. The term given to this belief is
Vitalism
The concept of vitalism is based on a belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws. According to this belief, organic compounds can arise only within living organisms. Which of the following did the most to refute the concept of vitalism?
Miller's experiments with ancient atmospheres.
The experimental approach taken in current biological investigations presumes that
living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena.
Which property of the carbon atom gives it compatibility with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom?
Carbonhas a valence of 4.
How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its calence shell?
4
What type(s) of bond(s) does carbon have a tendency to form?
Covalent
Which of the following is (are) true about the carbon atoms present in all organic molecules?
A, B, and C are correct
What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?
The majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
How many structural isomers are possible for a substance having the molecular formula C(4)H(10).
2
The two molecules shown in the following figure are best described as
Structural isomers
Observe the structures of glucose and frucose. These two molecules differ in the
Arrangement of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Observe the structures of glucose and fructose. These two molecules are
Structural isomers.
Which of the following is true of geometric isomers?
They have variations in arrangement around a double bond.
The two molecules shown in the following figure are best described as (C=C)
Geometric Isomers
Research suggests that side effects from Ritalin, the drug used to treat ADD, may be caused by contamination of enantiomers, or molecules that
Are mirror images of one another.
A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. Which of the following statements is true concerning this compound?
It should dissolve in water.
Which is the best description of a carbonyl group.
A carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond.
What is the name of the functional group shown in the following figure?
Carboxyl
Which of the following contains nitrogen in additon to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen?
an amino acid such as glycine.
Which of the following is a false statement concerning amino groups?
They are component of urea.
Amino acids are acids because they always possess which functional group?
Carboxyl and amino
Amino acids are acids because they always possess which functional group?
Carboxyl
A carbon skeleton is covalently bonded to borh an amino group and a carboxyl group. When placed in water it
Would function as neither an acid nor a base.
A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less acidic. Which of the following functional groups should be added to the molecule in order to do so?
Amino
Which functional groups can act as acids?
Carboxyl and phosphate
Which of the following statements is (are) true about the phosphate ion?
Only A and B are true
It is negatively charged.
It has acid properties.