Animal Science 1 - Production - Copy
Production of Beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, poultry, Marketing, Breeding Systems
Terms in this set (41)
What is Vertical Integration?
Two or more steps of production, marketing, and processing are linked together usually by contract between producers and feed manufacturers or between producers and processors or include all three.
What is an example of vertical integration?
A corporation such as Smithfield Foods, Inc. purchases feeder hogs from a producer and then raises the animals to a market weight in their company owned finishing house. Then they transport animals to the slaughter house that is also owned by Smithfield Foods, Inc.
What are the different types of poultry operations?
1.Egg Production 2.Broiler Production 3.Replacement Pullet Production
What happens in egg production operations?
These operations produce eggs for human consumption.
Laying hens are typically confined to...
cages or a floor-pen system.
What happens to eggs before they get to our table?
Eggs are cleaned, graded and packed at the farm.
How long will laying hens produce eggs for, and what happens to them after they are done producing?
These hens produce eggs for approximately 72 weeks and then they are then sold for meat once their production cycle is complete.
What happens in broiler production operations?
These operations produce poultry for meat consumption.
Poultry are fed high quality feed to maximize_______
Hormones ______ be added according to USDA standards (for broiler chickens).
iii.A producer will raise_______ flocks of birds each year.
What do you process broiler chickens into?
Broilers are processed into cuts of meat and also value added products such as sandwich meat, pre-cooked products, etc.
What happens in replacement pullet production operations?
These operations are raising chickens to replace either egg production or broiler production operations.
Approximately __% of broilers are raised through vertical integration contracts.
Over__ of laying hens are raised through vertical integration contracts.
Cattle producers use what types of breeding systems?
all types of systems
Swine and poultry producers tend to utilize what types of breeding systems?
What are the different types of straightbreeding systems?
1.Purebred Breeding 2.Inbreeding 3.Grading Up
mating registered purebred male and female of the same breed.
With purebreeding, animals are eligible for
registry with a purebred association.
Angus x Angus
mating closely related animals. Increased the genetic purity of the stock produced, but is not used as often by the typical producer.
mating animals that are very closely related.
mating animals more distantly related than closebreeding.
Grading up is:
mating purebred males (sires) to grade or unregistered or crossbred females (dams) to improve the herd.
What are the two types of inbreeding?
closebreeding and linebreeding
mating a male and female of different breeds. Usually results in improved traits of the offspring which is referred to as hybrid vigor.
What are the types of crossbreeding systems?
Terminal sire, rotational
What is a terminal sire type of crossbreeding system?
In this system, replacement females are bred to a sire and all offspring are sold.
What is a rotational crossbreeding system?
This system uses a two, three or four breeds to rotate between sires and females. This system requires more intensive management.
Yorkshire boar x Yorkshire - Hampshire sow
son X mother
cousin X cousin
Angus X Angus
What are the different methods of marketing animals?
A.Terminal Markets, B.Auction Markets, C.Direct Selling, D.Electronic Marketing, E.Futures Market and Hedging, F.Vertical Integration Contracts
What are terminal markets?
These are central markets on public stockyards where livestock are consigned to a commission firm to bargain with purchasers or buyers for a certain fee.
What are auction markets?
These markets have public bidding with the animals selling to the buyer who bids the highest.
What is direct selling?
Where the farmer sells straight to buyer with no middle person or firm receiving commissions or fees
What are electronic markets?
These markets utilize auctioning online through computers.
What is Futures Market and Hedging?
This is a legal document calling for delivery in the future, locking in a future delivery price.
What are vertical integration contracts?
Where animals are produced as well as marketed as a part of the vertical integration enterprise