18 terms

Endocrine System : Hormones

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Calcitonin
Target: intestine, kidney, bone
Decreases blood Ca level, increases excretion of Ca by kidney & slows intestine absorption.
Source: Thyroid
Insulin
Target: Cell membranes
Facilitates transport of glucose into cells; lowers glucose level in blood
Source: Pancreas
Estrogen
Target: General (many regions and organs)
Development of secondary sex characteristics, bone growth, sex drive
Source: Ovary
Prolactin
Target: Breasts
Milk production
Source: Anterior Pituitary
Epinephrine
Target: General (many regions and organs)
Increases heart rate and blood pressure. Directs blood to brain & muscles
Source: Adrenal Gland (medulla)
Oxytocin
Target: Breasts & Uterus
Stimulates release of milk, contraction of smooth muscle in childbirth and orgasm
Source: Posterior Pituitary
Glucagon
Target: Liver
Stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose, elevates blood glucose level
Source: Pancreas
Antidiuretic hormone
Target: Kidney
Increases water uptake in kidney (decreases urine volume)
Source: Posterior Pituitary
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
Target: Thyroid
Secretes hormones- stimulates thyroid
Source: Anterior Pituitary (Trophic)
Thyroxin (T4)
Target: General (no specific organs)
Increases oxidation of carbohydrates, stimulates growth and brain development
Source: Thyroid
Testosterone
Target: General (many regions and organs)
Differentiate male sex organs in embryo, secondary sex char., sex drive, bone growth
Source: Testis
Lutenizing Hormone
Target: Mature ovarian follicle
Stimulates ovulation, conversion of follicle to corpus luteum, and production of progerterone
Source: Anterior Hormone (trophic)
ACTH
Target: Adrenal Cortex
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex regulates the production of cortisol(steriod hormone) from anterior pituitary\
Source: Anterior Pituitary (trophic)
FSH
Target: Ovary, Testes
a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth of Graafian follicles in female mammals, and activates sperm-forming cells in male mammals
Source: Anterior Pituitary (trophic)
Endorphins
Target:Brain
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Source: Anterior Pituitary (trophic)
GH
Target: Bone, Muscle
Secreted directly by anterior pituitary; Growth Hormone, aka Somatotrophin; promotes bone and muscle growth
Source: Anterior Pituitary
Cortisol
Target: General Cells
A type of glucocorticoid released by the adrenal cortex. It converts amino acids to glucose, helps to breakdown fats to fatty acids. Decreases glucose uptake by the muscles and increases blood sugar in response to stress. Strong anti-inflammatory properties.
Source: Adrenal Gland (cortex)
Melatonin
Target: Bone Marrow
Hormone released by the pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark. Circadian Rhythms)
Source: Pineal Glad