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Glycemic Index

a measure of how eating a particular food affects blood glucose levels

Glycemic load

the amount of carbohydrate in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of the carbohydrate


the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation


Gas exchange between blood and alveoli

Systolic BP

pressure created in the arteries when the left ventrical contracts and forces blood out into circulation

Diastolic BP

force of blood against arteries when ventricles relax

Stroke Volume

the volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heartbeat
-As heart rate increases, SV decreases

Vital Capacity

maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible

Bohr Effect

Increasing concentration of H+ and CO2, reducing hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen, causing oxygen to release to necessary regions

VO2 max

Maximum amount of oxygen the body is able to utilize per minutre of physical activity, commonly expressed in Ml/kg/min, the best indicator of cardiorespiratory or aerobic fitness


Total peripheral resistance: is the sum of the resistance of all peripheral vasculature in the systemic circulation
-Decreases during exercise to allow easier blood flow

Sympathetic Nervous system

Regulates arousal, exercise, and excitement

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Regulates relaxation, calmness, and rest

Autonomic NS

a set of nerves that varies involuntary and automatic commands that controls blood vessels, body organs, and glands (sympathetic=arousing, Parasympathetic=calming)

3 types of muscle fiber

1. (type 1)Slow oxidative - endurance
2. (type 2A)Fast oxidative - soccer, 800m
3. (type 2B)Glycolytic - explosive, fast (anaerobic)

Ca+ cross bridge cycling

release of Ca++ ions allow actin and myosin filaments to bind

Tidal volume

Amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath


Carries oxygenated blood from lungs to left ventricle which pumps it to the capillaries


Carries oxygen depleted blood from capillaries to the right ventricle where it is pumped to the lungs

Cardiac Output

volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute; stroke volume x heart rate
-Incrs CO = incrs BP


Pulmonary Vascular Resistance: the resistance in pulmonary circulation


Produced in oxidative phosphorylation
-decrease pH
-CO2, H+

Oxygen depleted blood PP

O2: 40
CO2: 45

Oxygen rich blood PP

O2: 100
CO2: 40

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