25 terms

Health and Exercise Science 1

Glycemic Index
a measure of how eating a particular food affects blood glucose levels
Glycemic load
the amount of carbohydrate in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of the carbohydrate
the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation
Gas exchange between blood and alveoli
Systolic BP
pressure created in the arteries when the left ventrical contracts and forces blood out into circulation
Diastolic BP
force of blood against arteries when ventricles relax
Stroke Volume
the volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heartbeat
-As heart rate increases, SV decreases
Vital Capacity
maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible
Bohr Effect
Increasing concentration of H+ and CO2, reducing hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen, causing oxygen to release to necessary regions
VO2 max
Maximum amount of oxygen the body is able to utilize per minutre of physical activity, commonly expressed in Ml/kg/min, the best indicator of cardiorespiratory or aerobic fitness
Total peripheral resistance: is the sum of the resistance of all peripheral vasculature in the systemic circulation
-Decreases during exercise to allow easier blood flow
Sympathetic Nervous system
Regulates arousal, exercise, and excitement
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Regulates relaxation, calmness, and rest
Autonomic NS
a set of nerves that varies involuntary and automatic commands that controls blood vessels, body organs, and glands (sympathetic=arousing, Parasympathetic=calming)
3 types of muscle fiber
1. (type 1)Slow oxidative - endurance
2. (type 2A)Fast oxidative - soccer, 800m
3. (type 2B)Glycolytic - explosive, fast (anaerobic)
Ca+ cross bridge cycling
release of Ca++ ions allow actin and myosin filaments to bind
Tidal volume
Amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath
Carries oxygenated blood from lungs to left ventricle which pumps it to the capillaries
Carries oxygen depleted blood from capillaries to the right ventricle where it is pumped to the lungs
Cardiac Output
volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute; stroke volume x heart rate
-Incrs CO = incrs BP
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance: the resistance in pulmonary circulation
Produced in oxidative phosphorylation
-decrease pH
-CO2, H+
Oxygen depleted blood PP
O2: 40
CO2: 45
Oxygen rich blood PP
O2: 100
CO2: 40