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English Civil War, Glorious Revolution, and French Revolution

divine right

belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.

James I

succeeded Elizabeth I, persecuted the Puritans, led to many moving to america


Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization; persecuted by various kings; many moved to America; sided with Parliament during the English Civil War.

Charles I

Stuart son of James I and King of England, 1625-49. Beheaded by Roundheads at the end of the Civil War. Charles fought with the Puritan Parliament over his war expenses related to Scotland and Ireland, advancing his belief in the divine-right of kings, and marrying a Catholic, French princess.

martial law

rule by the army instead of the elected government

Petition of Right

1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time; prepared by Parliament.


a supporter or adherent of a king or royal government, esp. in times of rebellion or civil war.


a supporter of Parliament and Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.


a royalist supporter of Charles I during the English Civil War


a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

Charles II

Stuart son of Charles I and ruler of England from 1660-85. Known as the "Merry Monarch" because of his restoration of a more liberal culture after Cromwell's conservative republic.

constitutional monarchy

form of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a constitution

James II

This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government; his rule prompted the Glorious Revolution.

Whigs and Tories

These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was

William and Mary

These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament

Glorious Revolution

In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.

1st Estate

consisted of clergy; 1% of the population. They owned about 10% of the land. They were exempt from taxes.

2nd Estate

Nobility (wealthy) less than 2% of population, but owns 25% of land. Paid no taxes, held highest offices in government

3rd Estate

the commoners of French society prior to the revolution. the class that was divided into the bourgeoisie, laborers and artisans, and peasants; 97% of the population; paid most of the taxes.

Estates General

The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis


educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution

Louis XVI

King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.

Marie Antoinette

daughter of the empress of Austria, married to Louis XVI at age 15 and became Queen of France, accused of lavish spending that added to the national debt

National Assembly

a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people

Tennis Court Oath

vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written


Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.

Declaration of the Rights of Man

French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens

Constitution of 1791

1791; kept monarchy, but limited royal power. Unicameral, elected legislature. Equal rights, but only males who paid taxes could vote. Cause National Assembly to divide into Royalists, Moderates, and Radicals.


French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.

September Massacres

revolutionaries break into prisons across france and massacre thousands of many innocent people for fear that political prisoners will aid the austrian-prussian army

Georges Jacques Danton

French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror; helped rally troops for war with Austria.

National Convention

the National Assembly was taken over by the Jacobins and became this more radical governing body.


Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.

Maximilien Robespierre

"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.

Jean Paul Marat

One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution; was killed by Charlotte Corday.

Charlotte Corday

French revolutionary heroine (a Girondist) who assassinated Marat (1768-1793)


a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the Jacobins

sans culottes

A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men; radical.

Reign of Terror

the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed

Committee of Public Safety

Created by the National Convention, 12 people, had almost absolute power, battled to protect the revolution, and prepared France for war by ordering all citizens to join the war-effort, responsible for executing up to 40,000 French deemed as traitors to the revolution

Republic of Virtue

Robespierre's attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy, nobility and the Catholic Church

Temples of Reason

Churches were often changed into Temples of Reason, where the human mind was worshiped rather than religion. Republic of Virtue=Civic duty would replace noble and royal corruption

The Directory

1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.

coup d'etat

a sudden overthrow of the government

Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

Concordat of 1801

This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power

Napoleonic Code

a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon; took away many rights of women gained during the Revolution

Battle of Trafalgar

an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.

Continental System

Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.


The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for power

Prince Klemens von Metternich

Austrian statesman and diplomat; he was the Austrian representative at the Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon

Concert of Europe

Alliances devised by prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent outbreak of revolutions.

balance of power

system that prevents any one country from dominating the others

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