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A time of dramatic changes in ag, industry, and technology-result of spiritual revivals in 18th century

Industrial Revolution

period of great progress from 1760-1900 in Europe and America

Age of Industry


Age of Industry

growing just enough food to feed own families

subsistence farming

most critical material factor in determining how far a nation may advance

mastery of the food supply

the way of life based on biblical teaching that God expects all men to work and that all work is a noble duty to be performed toward God

Protestant work ethic

invented by Jethro Tull

seed drill

invented by John Deere

steel plow

invented by Cyrus McCormick


Reaper and thresher joined in one machine


work done in small private shops

domestic system

people employed to produce manufactured goods in a systematic way for wages

factory system

wages as compared to the cost of living

real wages

where the Industrial Revolution began

England's textile factories

invented the flying shuttle

John Kay

invented the spinning jenny

James Hargreaves

invented spinning frame

Richard Arkwright

invented spinning mule

Samuel Crompton

invented power loom

Edmund Cartwright

movement that began when farmer enclosed land with fences in order to raise sheep

Enclosure Movement

invented the cotton gin; made cotton inexpensive

Eli Whitney

invented miner's safety lamp

Sir Humphry Davy

an inexpensive process for converting iron into steel by using currents of air

Henry Bessemer

discovered the same process as the bessemer process

William Kelly

connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River

Erie Canal

joined the Med Sea and the Indian Ocean

Suez Canal

long, lean sailing vessels known for their tremendous speed on the high seas

clipper ships

surpassed clipper ships


built first practical steamship, the Clermont

Robert Fulton

built the first practical steam powered locomotive

George Stephenson

invented the internal combustion engine

Gottlieb Daimler

invented the diesel engine

Rudolf Diesel

began cars in Germany

Karl Benz

began cars in US

Henry Ford

invented the electric telegraph

Samuel Morse

laid first successful transatlantic telegraph cable

Cyrus Fields

invented telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

invented wireless telegraph

Guglielmo Marconi

proposed atomic theory

John Dalton

discovered relationship between electricity and magnetism

Michael Faraday

helped formulate laws of thermodynamics and introduced absolute temp scale

Lord Kelvin

explained electrical force; wave theory

James Clerk Maxwell

experimented with radioactivity and discovered two new elements

Pierre and Marie Curie

developed the first vaccine; smallpox vaccine

Edward Jenner

developed germ theory

Louis Pasteur

every infectious disease is caused by a specific germ

germ theory of disease

introduced antiseptics

Joseph Lister

greatest inventor in history

Thomas Edison

Edison's most famous invention

incandescent electric light bulb

total output of goods and services of America

Gross National Product

private ownership of means of production; free market


leaves the individual to make something of himself if he has the enterprise to do it

free enterprise

defeated Spain in the Spanish American War


joined Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean

Panama Canal

Fat Cat in oil industry

John D. Rockefeller

Fat Cat in steel industry

Andrew Carnegie

Fat Cat in banking industry

JP Morgan

comes from two Greek words meaning "love of mankind"


supported of capitalism

Adam Smith

trade without government interference

free trade

published Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith

year of Wealth of Nations publishing


government controlled trade


Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin


Edward Jenner develops the first vaccine


Cyrus McCormick invents mechanical reaper


Marconi invents wireless telegraph


Reform Bill grants suffrage to all middle class males


Slavery abolished about British Empire


Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species


British North America Act makes Canada a self-governing commonwealth


Suez Canal completed


Fabien Society Formed


Bell created the telephone


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