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22 terms

7-Physical/Cognitive dev in the Preschool years

STUDY
PLAY
obesity
body weight more than 20% of average weight for a person of a given age and height
lateralization
process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other
myelin
protective insulation that surrounds parts of the neuron
handedness
preference of using one hand over the other
preoperational stage
Piaget- ages 2-7 which children's use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases
operations
organized, formal, logical mental processes
centration
concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects
conservation
quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects
transformation
process in which one state is charged into another
egocentric thought
thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others
intuitive thought
thinking that reflects preschoolers' use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world
autobiographical memory
memory of particular events from one's own life
scripts
broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur
zone of proximal development (XPD)
Vygotsky- level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent
scaffolding
support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth
syntax
how an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences
fast mapping
instances in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter
grammar
system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed
private speech
speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves
pragmatics
aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others
social speech
speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person
developmentally appropriated educational practice
educcation that is based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child