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body weight more than 20% of average weight for a person of a given age and height


process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other


protective insulation that surrounds parts of the neuron


preference of using one hand over the other

preoperational stage

Piaget- ages 2-7 which children's use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases


organized, formal, logical mental processes


concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects


quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects


process in which one state is charged into another

egocentric thought

thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others

intuitive thought

thinking that reflects preschoolers' use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world

autobiographical memory

memory of particular events from one's own life


broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur

zone of proximal development (XPD)

Vygotsky- level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent


support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth


how an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences

fast mapping

instances in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter


system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed

private speech

speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves


aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others

social speech

speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person

developmentally appropriated educational practice

educcation that is based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child

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