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24 terms

Sociology 101 Quiz 2

STUDY
PLAY
race
a category of people treated as distinct on account of physical characteristics to which social importance has been assigned
ethnic group
a category whose members are thought to share a common origin and important elements of a common culture
majority group
a group that is culturally, economically, and politically dominant
minority group
a group that is culturally, economically, and politically subordinate
pluralism
the peaceful coexistence of separate and equal cultures in the same society
genocide
refers to mass killings aimed at destroying a population
prejudice
an irrational, negative attitude toward a category of people
stereotype
a preconceived, simplistic idea about the members of the group
Scapegoating
occurs when people or groups blame others for their failures
discrimination
the unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their membership in categories
racism
the belief that inherited physical characteristics associated with racial groups determine individuals' abilities and personalities and provide a legitimate basis for unequal treatment
concentrated poverty
refers to areas in which very high proportions of the population live in poverty
culture of poverty
a set of values that emphasizes living for the moment rather than thrift, investment in the future, or hard work
world systems theory
a conflict perspective of the economic relationships between developed and developing countries, the core and peripheral societies
self fulfilling prophecies
occur when something is defined as real and therefore becomes real in its consequences
wealth
refers to the sum value of money and goods owned by an individual or household
social construction of race
the process through which a culture defines what constitutes a race or an ethnic group
socioeconomic status
a measure of social class that ranks individuals on income, education, occupation, or some combination of these
near poor
live in households earning from just above the federal poverty level to twice the federal poverty level
stratification
(structures of inequality) an institutionalized pattern of inequality in which social statuses are ranked on the basis of their access to scarce resources
strengths of Structural functionalism in regards to stratification
consideration of unequal skills and talents and necessity of motivating people to work
strengths of conflict theory in regards to stratification
consideration of conflict of interest and how those with control use the system to their advantage
weaknesses of structural functionalism in regards to stratification
ignores importance of power and inheritance in allocated rewards; functional importance overstated
weaknesses of conflict theory in regards to stratification
ignores the functions of inequality and importance of individual differences