World War 1
Terms in this set (75)
building up a military to prepare for a war; spending a lot of money on weapons
the readying of troops for war
Who were the Central Powers/ Triple Alliance?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Who were the Allies/ Triple Entente?
France, Britain, and Russia
cargo ship that was sunk
pledge by German gov. in 1916 that its submarines would warn ships before attacking
telegram sent by Germany's foreign secretary in 1917 to Mexican officials proposing an alliance with Mexico and promising US territory if Mexico declared war on US
collapse of the Czar's gov. in Russia in 1917, after which Russian monarchy was replaced with Republican government
Selective Service Act
law passed in 1917 authorizing a draft of young men for military service in WW1
American Expeditionary Force
name given to American troops in Europe in WW1
group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of armed naval vessels
German floating airship (blimp)
cease fire or troops
raised our $20 billion
gov. controlling price of food
instead of people going to the store, people were encouraged to grow vegetable gardens
mass movement of African Americans from south to north to escape racial violence
daylight saving time
it saved fuel- Fuel Administration
Espionage and Sedition Act
made it illegal to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or to discuss anything disloyal about the American form of gov., the constitution, or military
Wilson's world peace plan; all new states= democracies, created League of Nations
power to make decisions about one's own future
rewards gained through military victory
League of Nations
international peace keeping institution
money that has to be paid back for wrong doing
ends WW1; 9 new territories were created
assassinated by Gavrilo Princip
known for Schlieffen Plan; Germans first strike
Revolutionary leader in Russia; established communist government
headed Food Administration- power to impose price controls and rationing
President- signs separate peace treaties with other countries to get US out the war
Who were the Big Four?
Lloyd George (Britain)
Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
What were the 4 long term causes of World War 1? What started the war?
Imperialism, Militarism, Nationalism, Alliances.
The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.
What is propaganda?
information intended to persuade public opinion
What policy did America take in the early stages of WW1?
What were the 2 types of Nationalism?
1) Large companies wanted to reclaim lands previously lost.
2) Countries with diverse ethnic populations who sought self-government.
What were Alliances?
a complicated system of alliances designed to make each nation secure bound the great powers to come to each other's aid in the event of attack
What was Germany's first strike strategy?
Schlieffen Plan and one week after, everyone was in the war
What happened when Germany went through Belgium and France?
They were stopped by Allied forces
What was America's response?
1) Many German immigrants supported Central Powers over Allied powers.
2) Most Americans sided with Allied Powers
3) Willhelm of Germany's rule offended those who supported Democracy
Why does America stay neutral?
because German submarines and British naval blockades were both hurting American's European trade, Wilson proclaimed US neutral. We wanted to be prepared for possibility of war (militarism).
Who were peace advocates?
populists, Midwest Progressives, and women
What did the British blockade do and what did the Germans do about it?
Blocked the border of Germany and kept them from getting supplies; German U-Boat Response- to sink all cargo ships found around Britain.
Why did America become angry with Germany and what did Germany promise? What happened?
Germany sank Lusitania (cargo ship) off the coast of Ireland; 128 Americans were killed.
Germany promised not to sink any more, but broke their promise and sank the Sussex (cargo ship).
America still remained neutral.
Why did neutrality collapse?
1) Germany called for Unrestricted Submarine Warfare.
2) Zimmerman Telegram- Germany asking for alliance with Mexico in exchange Germany would ensure that Mexico recover lost territories (Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona)
3) Wilson was forced to declare war.
How did America prepare for war?
1) Selective Service Act
2) American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
3) transporting troops safely overseas (convoy system)
What was used for the first and last time in war?
What were some new things used in war?
airplanes, tanks, u-boats, zeppelins
Bolshevik Revolution (Russia)
1) Lenin had been living in Switzerland
2) promised peace with Germany if he returned to Russia
3) Germany helped him get into power in Russia by supporting his revolution
4) Lenin signed a peace treaty with Germany
Why did Germany gain an advantage when Russia left the war?
because they no longer had to fight a 2-front war
How did we finance the war?
1) Liberty Bonds
2) Food Administration
3) War Trade Board licensed foreign trade
4) War Industries Board oversaw the nation's related production
5) Factories were re-tooled
How does American industry respond to war?
Women went to work while men served on the front
What did the committee on public information do?
Coordinated the production of films, pamphlets, posters, etc. promoting war.
What did the National Security League do?
Worked to protect against spies and sabotage
What was "Hate the Hun"?
Everything that was German was changed/ gotten rid of
What did the Big 4 want?
1) Orlando (Italy)- primary objective was to gain territory for Italy
2) Clemenceau (France)- wanted revenge for what the war cost France in terms of lives and property. Primarily wanted to ensure France's security by weakening Germany
3) George (Britain)- restore Britain's international economic strength and rebuild Britain's damaged infrastructure
4) Wilson (US)- wanted to create a new world order, based on an idealistic program for world peace called FOURTEEN POINTS
What was the most important about the Fourteen Points?
1) All new states should be democracies
2) The creation of a permanent, international peace-keeping institution: The League of Nations
What were results of the conference?
1) Wilson was forced to compromise. Allies were interested in making Germany pay for land.
2) Versailles: 9 new territories created
What happened to Germany after the war?
1) Germany had to pay reparations.
2) Germany's economy is basically done and in debt.
3) War Guild Clause-making them say the whole war was their fault (humiliating)
All leads to World War 2
What were the terms of the Versailles Treaty?
1) Germany lost territory
2) Take away their military
3) They're watched for 15 years
4) Germany admitted guilt for starting war and paid reparations
Why doesn't Congress sign the treaty?
because they don't agree with The League of Nations and they believe it will affect our independence.
What are some significances of WW1?
1) End to Great Powers
2) Great Britain weakened
3) Russia= Soviet Union (communists)
4) US establishes themselves as a World Power- economically and military wise (if need money- go to America)
5) New technology (weapons)
6) Human casualties
7) Bitterness in Germany
What leads to World War 2?
Bitterness in Germany
What were the 4 long term causes of world war 1?
Militarism, nationalism, imperialism, and alliances
What was the message of the Zimmerman telegram?
Germany proposing alliance with Mexico in return for lost US territory if they declared war on US
What punished people for having anti-war messages?
Espionage and sedition act
What was the problem with the Treaty of Versailles?
Not everyone agreed with it and it wasn't fair for Germany
How did Britain cause famine and starvation in germany?
When was the armistice signed?
November 11, 1918
How did American ships safely reach Europe?
What required men to register for the military draft?
Selective service act
How did the media influence the war?
What was wilson's plan for countries to talk their problems out peacefully?
League of Nations
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