What are the various types of headaches according to the International Headache Society Classification System?
migraine, tension-type, cluster and other trigeminal autonomic cephalagias, other primary headaches and secondary headaches
What are the two types of migraine?
migraine with aura (visual disturbance) and migraine without aura
What causes the aura in a migraine?
decreased cerebral blood flow in occipital region; moves across the cerebral cortex; symptoms may be caused by neuronal dysfunction
What system regulates the pain associated with migraine without aura?
What are premonitory symptoms?
signs that clue a patient that they are going to experience a migraine/headache in the days to come
What are some premonitory symptoms?
neurologic (sensitive to the light), psychological (anxiety), constitutional (stiff neck and yawning), and autonomic (diarrhea and constipation)
What are acute symptoms of migraine?
throbbing pain, unilateral, N/V in 30% and sensitivity to light
How long will auras typically last?
What are diagnostic criteria for headache without aura?
At least five attacks, with each lasting 4 to 72 hours; HA has at least 2 of the following characteristics: unilateral location, pulsating quality and moderate to severe intensity; and during HA at least one of the following: N/V/both, photophobia/phonophobia, or not attributed to another disorder
What are diagnostic criteria for headache with aura?
At least two attacks and no attributable to another disorder, typical aura and at least one of the following: at least 1 symptom that develops gradually over a minimum of 5 minutes or different symptoms that occur in succession or both, each symptom lasts at least 5 minutes, but not more than 60, and HA that meets criteria for migraine w/o aura begins during the aura or follows aura within 60 minutes
What are the goals of therapy for acute treatment?