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19 terms

Mendel and Meiosis

Vocabulary for Unit 10
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gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
homologous chromosome
the chromosomes that make up a pair, one chromose from each parent
gamete
sex cells that have half the number of chromosomes as the parent's cell
haploid
a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
fertilization
the process by which one haploid gamete combines with another haploid gamete
diploid
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
crossing over
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
genetics
the science of heredity
allele
Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism.
dominant
a trait that shows up whenever present
recessive
a specific rait that is hidden unless two alleles are present
homozygous
an organism with two of the same alleles
Heterozygous
an organism with two different alleles
genotype
organisms allele pairs
phenotype
observable characteristic or outward expression of an allele pair; the trait you an see
law of segregation
two aleles for each trait separate during during meiosis and two alleles for that trait unit during fertilization
hybrids
organisms that have a heterozygous allele combination
law of independent assortment
a random distribution of alleles accurs during gamete formation